Referencias | References
Referencias completas de vocabulario, eventos, crónicas, evidencias y otros contenidos utilizados en los proyectos relacionados con biotecnología y neurociencia de la KW Foundation.
Full references of vocabulary, events, chronicles, evidences and other contents used in KW Projects related to biotechnology and neuroscience.
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+1 se refiere a la letra siguiente en el abecedario.
Transitioning to 100G and Beyond: The Big Picture
As the industry moves forward to meet the enormous demand for data with video, mobile, and cloud, the core networks need to transition from 10G to 100G and beyond. Consider some of these findings from Cisco’s 2013 Visual Networking Index (VNI) report:
Los atentados del 11 de septiembre de 2001 (comúnmente denominados “11-S”en España y Latinoamérica; “9/11” en el mundo anglosajón) fueron una serie de atentados terroristas suicidas cometidos aquel día en los Estados Unidos por miembros de la red yihadista Al Qaeda. Lo hicieron mediante el secuestro de aviones de línea, para ser impactados luego contra varios objetivos. Causaron la muerte a cerca de 3.000 personas y heridas a otras 6.000, así como la destrucción del entorno del World Trade Center en Nueva York y graves daños en el Pentágono, Estado de Virginia. Fue el episodio que precedería a la guerra de Afganistán y a la adopción por el Gobierno estadounidense y sus aliados de la política denominada “Guerra contra el terrorismo”.
2013 - Estadística de Accesos Web a www.kwfoundation.org 
2014 State of the Network 
2014 State of the Network
2015’s Most Electrifying Emerging Tech? World Economic Forum Releases Annual List 
"Time is everything"
2015’s Most Electrifying Emerging Tech? World Economic Forum Releases Annual List
Writing lists forecasting technology is a bit like writing science fiction. Prerequisites include intimate knowledge of the bleeding edge of technology, the ability to separate signal from noise, and more than a little audacity. Looking back, they can appear adorably quaint or shockingly prescient.
In either case, they’re usually as much a reflection of and commentary on the present as they are a hint at the future. What problems seemed most pressing and which solutions were most exciting? The World Economic Forum's Top 10 Emerging Technologies list isn't old enough to make serious judgements about its track record. But looking back, each year’s contribution reminded me of the year in which it was written.
Enhanced education technology, for example, was included in 2012—when the launch of Coursera, edX, and Udacity led the New York Times to dub it “The Year of the MOOC [Massive Open Online Course].” 2013’s #1 spot, OnLine Electric Vehicles, was inspired by those South Korean buses charged by the road.
Two and three years on? Though much expanded, online education is still struggling to prove its worth, and road-charged vehicles remain a rarity. The former will get there, in my view, while the latter may lag in cities, where big infrastructure projects—especially on main arteries like roads—are so disruptive.
But right or wrong isn’t the point (yet). These are emerging technologies. The World Economic Forum expects most of these tools, often still in the research stage, to take anywhere from 10 to 30 years to have a broad impact. Ultimately, some will succeed, some will partially succeed, and some will fail or be replaced.
Debating what should or shouldn't have been included—that’s the fun part. To that end, we've summarized each entry on this year's list below. Go here for the list in full, and leave your thoughts in the comments.
1. "Fuel cell vehicles: Zero-emission cars that run on hydrogen"
Long-promised, fuel cell vehicles are finally here. Various car companies are aiming to bring new models to market. Though pricey at first ($70,000), if they prove popular, prices could fall in coming years.
Fuel cells combine the most attractive characteristics of gas-powered cars and electric cars.
Electric cars are criticized for low range and lengthy recharging. Fuel cell cars, meanwhile, go 400 miles on a tank of compressed hydrogen and take minutes to refuel. They are also clean burning—replacing toxic gases, like carbon monoxide and soot, with naught but water vapor.
Despite better fuel cell technology, there are a number of obstacles, largely shared by electric cars, that may prevent widespread adoption in the near term. These include the clean, large scale production of hydrogen gas, the transportation of gas over long distances, and the construction of refueling infrastructure.
2. "Next-generation robotics: Rolling away from the production line"
Like fuel cell vehicles, everyday robots have long commanded prime real estate in the imagination. But beyond factories, they have yet to break into the mainstream. Most are still big, dangerous, and dumb. That's changing thanks to better sensors, improved robotic bodies (often inspired by nature), increasing computing and networking power, and easier programming (it no longer takes a PhD).
These new, more flexible robots are capable of tasks beyond assembly lines. New applications span weeding and harvesting on farms to helping patients out of bed in Japanese hospitals.
Prime fears include the concern robots will replace human workers or run amok. These risks may appear increasingly realistic. However, the list's writers note that prior rounds of automation tended to produce higher productivity and growth. Meanwhile, more familiarity and experience with robots may reduce fears, and a strong human-machine alliance is the more likely outcome.
3. "Recyclable thermoset plastics: A new kind of plastic to cut landfill waste"
There are two commonly used plastics: thermoplastics (which can be reshaped and thus recycled) and thermoset plastics (which can only be shaped once and are not recyclable). The latter category are prized for durability and are widely used.
But the tradeoff for toughness is most end up as landfill.
Just last year, however, researchers discovered recyclable thermoset plastics. The new category, dubbed poly(hexahydrotriazine)s, or PHTs, can be dissolved in strong acid and reused in new products. Achieving recyclability without sacrificing durability means they may replace previously unrecyclable components.
How quickly might this happen? The list's writers predict recyclable thermoset plastics will be ubiquitous by 2025. The move could significantly reduce the amount of plastic waste in landfill across the globe.
4. "Precise genetic-engineering techniques: A breakthrough offers better crops with less controversy"
New genetic engineering techniques are more precise and forego controversial techniques that rely on the bacterial transfer of DNA. The breakthrough CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing method, for example, uses RNA to disable or modify genes in much the same way such changes happen during natural genetic mutation. The technique can also accurately insert new sequences or genes into a target genome.
Another advance, RNA interference (RNAi), protects crops from viral infection, fungal pathogens, and pests and may reduce dependence on chemical pesticides. Major staples including wheat, rice, potatoes, and bananas may benefit from the tech.
The report predicts declining controversy as genetic engineering helps boost incomes of small farmers, feeds more people, and thanks to more precise techniques, avoids transgenic plants and animals (those with foreign genetic material). Meanwhile, the tech may make agriculture more sustainable by reducing needed resources like water, land, and fertilizer.
5. "Additive manufacturing: The future of making things, from printable organs to intelligent clothes"
3D printing has been used in industrial prototyping for years, but now it's beginning to branch out.
3D printed objects offering greater customization, like Invisalign's tailor-made orthodontic braces, for example, are coming to market. 3D bioprinting machines are placing human cells layer-by-layer to make living tissues (e.g., skin, bone, heart, and vascular). Early applications are in the testing of new drugs, but eventually they hope to print whole, transplantable organs.
Next steps include 3D printed integrated electronics, like circuit boards—though nanoscale parts, like those in processors, still face challenges—and 4D printed objects that transform themselves in accordance with environmental conditions, like heat and humidity. These might be useful in clothes or implants.
Potentially disruptive to the traditional manufacturing market, additive manufacturing is still confined to limited applications in cars, aerospace, and medicine. Still, fast growth is expected in the next decade.
6. "Emergent artificial intelligence: What happens when a computer can learn on the job?"
Artificial intelligence is on the rise. Microsoft, Google, Facebook, and others are developing the technology to allow machines to autonomously learn by sifting massive amounts of data.
Hand-in-hand with advanced robotics, AI will boost productivity, freeing us from certain jobs and, in many cases, even doing them better. It's thought that driverless cars, for example, will reduce accidents (which are often due to human error), and AI systems like Watson may help doctors diagnose disease.
The fear we may lose control of superintelligent machines remains a hot topic, as does the concern over increasing technological unemployment and inequality. The report notes the former may yet be decades away, and despite a possibly bumpy path, the latter may make human attributes, like creativity and emotional IQ, more highly valued. The future will challenge our conception of what it means to be human and force us to deeply consider the risks and benefits of giving machines human-like intelligence.
7. "Distributed manufacturing: The factory of the future is online—and on your doorstep"
Instead of gathering and assembling raw materials in a centralized factory and assembly line—in distributing manufacturing, materials would be spread over many hubs and products would be made near to the customer.
How would it work? "Replace as much of the material supply chain as possible with digital information."
If you've visited 3D printing marketplaces like Thingiverse or Shapeways, you've seen the future of manufacturing. Plans for a product are digitized in 3D modeling software and uploaded to the web. Tens of thousands of people can grab the files and make the product anywhere there's a 3D printer. This might be at a local business, university, or eventually, in our homes.
Distributed manufacturing may more efficiently use resources and lower barriers to entry, allowing for increased diversity (as opposed to today's heavily standardized, assembly line products). Additionally, instead of requiring trucks, planes, and ships to move things—we'll simply zap them over the internet. This may allow for goods to rapidly travel the whole globe, even to places not currently well served.
Risks include intellectual rights violations, as we saw when music was digitized, and less control over dangerous items, like guns or other weapons. And not all items will be amenable to distributed manufacturing. Traditional methods will remain, but perhaps be much reduced in scope.
8. "'Sense and avoid' drones: Flying robots to check power lines or deliver emergency aid"
People are finding all manner of interesting non-military uses for drones: agriculture, news gathering, delivery, filming and photography. The drawback to date, however, is they still require a human pilot. The next step? Drones that fly themselves. To do this safely, they'll need to sense and avoid obstacles.
Early prototypes are already here. Just last year, Intel and Ascending Technologies showed off drones able to navigate an obstacle course and avoid people. Once autonomous, drones can undertake dangerous tasks (without needing a human to be near). This might include checking power lines or delivering supplies after a disaster. Or drones may monitor crops and allow more efficient use of resources like water and fertilizer.
Remaining challenges include making more robust systems capable of flight in adverse conditions. Once perfected, however, drones like robots, will take the power of computing into the three dimensional physical realm and "vastly expand our presence, productivity and human experience."
9. "Neuromorophic technology: Computer chips that mimic the human brain"
In some ways, the human brain remains the envy of today's most sophisticated supercomputers. It is powerful, massively parallel, and insanely energy efficient. Computers, no matter how fast they are, are still linear power hogs that substitute brute force for elegance. But what if we could combine the two?
Neurmorphic chips, like IBM's TrueNorth, are inspired by the brain and hope to do just that. Instead of shuttling data back and forth between stored memory and central processors, neuromorphic chips combine storage and processing into the same interconnected neuron-like components. This fundamentally different chip architecture may vastly speed processing and improve machine learning.
TrueNorth has a million "neurons" that, when working on some tasks, are hundreds of times more power efficient than conventional chips. Neuromorphic chips "should allow more intelligent small-scale machines to drive the next stage in miniaturization and artificial intelligence...[where] computers will be able to anticipate and learn, rather than merely respond in pre-programmed ways."
10. "Digital genome: Healthcare for an age when your genetic code is on a USB stick"
The cost to sequence the human genome has fallen exponentially since it was first sequenced. In the beginning in cost tens or even hundreds of millions of dollars to sequence a single genome. Now, the cost is somewhere around $1,000 and a single machine can sequence tens of thousands of genomes a year.
As more people get their genome sequenced, the information can be stored on a laptop, USB stick, or shared online. Quick and affordable genetic testing promises to make healthcare—from the genetic components of heart disease to cancer—more individually tailored, targeted, and effective.
Prime concerns and challenges include security and privacy of personal information. Also, communication of genetic risks and educating people on what those risks mean will be critical. In aggregate, however, the list's authors say it is more likely the benefits of personalized medicine will outweigh the risks.
Image Credit: Shutterstock.com
3 Ways to Use Social Media to Recruit Better Tech Talent 
3 Ways to Use Social Media to Recruit Better Tech Talent
Is your company using social media to its full potential when it comes to finding new employees? Your competition probably is.
A whopping 93 percent of the 1,855 recruiting pros surveyed in Jobvite's 2014 Social Recruiting Survey use or plan to use social media in their recruiting efforts.
The reason why is simple and powerful. According to respondents, leveraging social media improves candidate quality by 44 percent over those using only "traditional" recruiting techniques like phone screenings and filtering resumes based solely on skills and experience.
Social media allows not only information about a candidate's experience and skills, but a better glimpse into their lifestyle, values and their cultural fit, which is crucial for companies looking not just to recruit and hire, but also to engage employees and improve retention rates.
The Jobvite survey reveals that 80 percent of recruiters are using social media to evaluate a candidate's potential culture match. The emphasis on cultural fit is a major reason recruiters are doubling down on social media as a tool.
Use Social Media to Evaluate Cultural Fit
Social media's often used to highlight "what not to do" from a candidate's perspective (take down those photos of your bachelor weekend in Vegas, please), but what's often overlooked is its usefulness to recruiters and hiring managers as both a sourcing and a screening tool for new talent especially when it comes to finding talent with that perfect cultural fit, says Yarden Tadmor, CEO and founder of anonymous job search and recruiting app Switch.
"Traditionally, social media's importance to recruiting has been limited to the way it is used to weed out candidates who might be a bad fit -- in other words, those unprotected tweets can do serious damage when recruiters are evaluating potential employees. But social media, whether staple networks like LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter or burgeoning apps like our Switch … has become a convenient and comprehensive way for recruiters to find, 'like' and connect with candidates," says Tadmor.
Filtering candidates through the lens of their Facebook profiles, Twitter feeds and other platforms helps determine whether prospects would fit the culture of a company and, perhaps more importantly, if they would be willing to consider a move, Tadmor says.
"The impact social media has had on our recruiting is immeasurable. When we're on the fence about a candidate's resume, we use LinkedIn to find out how involved they are in the LinkedIn community and throughout the industry. This gives valuable insight that was previously unattainable, and are key ingredients of our prime candidates," says Cristin Sturchio, global head of Talent at COGNOLINK. Sturchio adds that when using LinkedIn as a screening tool, she and her team look for candidates who've gained endorsements, who belong to professional groups and follow relevant companies and people.
"This tells us that they are engaged and active in their profession, and are likely to be engaged and active as one of our employees. You can't find that kind of information on a resume, and if you can, it often gets lost in more pressing details," says Sturchio.
Use Social Media to Evangelize Your Business, Mission and Values
From a recruiting perspective, having a well-defined social media brand can help attract the best passive candidates, says Tadmor. In fact, according to the Jobvite research, companies know they have to sell their workplace cultures not just to attract the right candidates but to influence their decisions about where to work, and attract like-minded talent. In addition, continued use of social media will help companies attract the next-generation workforce, as millennials continue to use social and mobile technology in their career efforts, according to David Hirsch, managing partner of Metamorphic Ventures.
Hirsch says that social media is the ideal medium for employers to broadcast their social mission in order to attract high quality candidates. "With mobile being the dominant way that millennials communicate and operate, we fully expect the way that companies will find new talent will continue trending toward more use of social media, as connections are made based on geo-location proximity, interests, passions, experiences, extended network, etc.," says Hirsch.
As more millennials enter the workforce, Hirsch says apps like Switch will become more important for both employers and employees, allowing them to quickly sift through the "noise" and find their perfect "match" in a way that's more in line with how millennials will expect to experience their job searches and how recruiters should target prospects.
Use Social Media to Advertise Open Positions
Of course, recruiters and hiring managers are still using social media in a more traditional way, to post open positions or as a platform to reach broader segments of their industry in hopes of luring potential employees, says Seven Step RPO (Recruitment Process Outsourcing) president Paul Harty.
"A company might be using Facebook or Twitter to broadcast targeted industry related news for mechanical engineers. It also may have recruiters posting about mechanical engineers for those interested in related jobs, and then advertising those jobs through that commentary. That targeted outreach and profiling happens more than you think. Companies are finding people by Tweeting or posting a Facebook page to find the skills they are looking to acquire, regardless of position. However and wherever recruiters can find talent, they will leverage those channels to be where the talent community exists," says Harty.
Cognolink's Sturchio highlights that his organization also uses social media for job postings. "We also use Twitter to blast out our recruiting activities on campus, which allows us to find new candidates, promote our brand, and draw interest and awareness to find talent," says Sturchio.
37 Life Lessons in 37 Years 
37 Life Lessons in 37 Years
Today is my 37th birthday. And, I must say, it's been a pretty interesting ride so far. As I look back over the years and many phases of my Iife, I realize how each stage, success, stumble, triumph and heartache has had a significant impact on where I stand right now. And despite the rough patches, I love it all.
From a shy yet studious little girl, to an artsy and somewhat rebellious teenager, to a happy-go-lucky big-dreaming 20-something with a bit of a wild size, my metamorphosis were plentiful in my early years. Now into my 30s, my heart has grown a few sizes larger and overflows with motherly love as I've discovered what matters most in life. And my entrepreneurial experiences have been a crash course in lessons of life, business and self that, at times, brought me to the brink of what I thought I could handle, only to be rewarded nicely for sticking it out and seeing it through.
As I continue to step more fully into myself each day and bring to light my mission of helping others build their own dreams with joy and ease, I've racked my brain to think of my top 37 life lessons so far. On this day of celebrating another trip around the sun, I share these with you and hope you find inspiration as I have. Enjoy!
Top 37 Life Lessons So Far...
In looking back at your own life, realize that every high and low is all part of your amazing story. Own it! Take cues and guidance from the universe and you will continue to go on an incredible ride as you fully step into your truth and power.
Age is just a number, but the higher it gets, the more wisdom and life experience we've amassed. You are never going to be younger than you are in this present moment again. So embrace it, love it, and enjoy it fully!
Here's to many more beautiful years of seeking-truth, questioning all that does not sit right, and making your greatest impact in the world! I look forward to adding more lessons as life continues to give me the opportunity to learn, grow, transform, share and expand. Hope you will too.
With much love,
3D Printed Electronic Devices Are Coming 
3D Printed Electronic Devices Are Coming
The handheld computers we carry in our pockets represent almost unimaginable complexity. Batteries, sensors, chips, circuits, and touch displays in a space age shell, all painstakingly assembled by thousands of workers and shipped globally.
Smartphones have disrupted numerous industries. Up next? Disrupting how such modern marvels are made. What if you could dramatically reduce the number of parts and eliminate assembly—what if you could 3D print a smartphone?
Voxel8’s new 3D printer, which can print functioning electronic devices all in one piece, heralds just such a radical possibility. It should be noted that Voxel8’s printer can’t print every component yet. But that doesn’t lessen its significance.
How does it work? In one sense, just like your standard 3D printer, the device is guided by digital modeling software to build shapes out of consecutive layers of plastic. When instructed, the printer pauses and a second print nozzle lays down highly conductive circuits while the operator pops in key components like processor, battery, and motors.
Voxel8’s demo video shows the device printing a working drone quadcopter start to finish.
Now, clearly, the Voxel8 printer can’t print a drone from the ground up, never mind a smartphone. But circuitry is the connective tissue of a device, and the printer can make antennas, electromagnetic coils, or stacked integrated circuits.
"No longer are you limited to planar PCBs [printed circuit boards]," the Voxel8 team writes on their website. "Now you can design the electronics to fit your part, rather than designing the part around the electronics."
And for more complete 3D printed electronic devices? Think of this as a proof of concept.
3D printed electronics: Some assembly still required.
The Harvard research group behind the device has spent years neck deep in materials science. The conductive “ink” that forms their 3D printed circuits reportedly leaves competitors in the dust in terms of sheer conductivity. And in the future, Voxel8 says they plan to develop new “inks” for resistors, sensors, and batteries.
As the technology progresses, and the number of printable electronic components grows, it'll advance 3D printing beyond today's prototypes and plastic trinkets to useful tools and devices. But not yet.
The last few decades of industrial prototyping on big, expensive 3D printers were a bit like the early days of modern computing—the decades of military and industrial supercomputers that required a room and a PhD to operate, and only did a few things really well. But the last few years have looked more like the 70s and early 80s when hobbyists and hackers gave birth to personal computers.
Like early PCs, consumer 3D printers are clunky, slow, and in search of a reason for regular folks to buy them. We can expect them to get faster. And their interfaces will get smoother. But that killer application remains elusive.
CT scan of a 3D printed quadcopter showing circuit board wired to motors.
Expanding the materials 3D printers can use expands what their products can do. That’s why Voxel8 is exciting. Industrial 3D printers can already print with a variety of materials including different plastics and metals. MakerBot recently announced composite wood, stone, and metal filaments for its consumer line of printers at CES.
They showed off a hammer that looked and functioned like a traditional hammer (albeit, still not quite as sturdy). Printing tools and replacement parts at home might be an early reason to buy a 3D printer.
But add a variety of conductive inks and printable electronics to the mix, and we begin to see far more versatile 3D printed objects requiring little to no assembly. Maybe we’ll go to the local print shop for our devices.
Maybe we’ll print some of them on our desk.
In either case, it'll be one disruptive technology disrupting another. Why, for example, would Foxconn need to replace humans assembling iPhones with industrial robots, if the manufacturing and assembly process was radically simplified by advanced 3D printers? Or, eventually, perhaps we won't need a big, centralized manufacturing hub like Foxconn at all.
When I learned about Voxel8, I was reminded of William Gibson’s latest novel, The Peripheral, which takes place in both a near and far future. In the near future—virtually everything is 3D printed. Even the protagonist Flynne Fisher’s phone.
Perhaps Voxel8's electronics printing machine marks the beginning of all that. We're here to find out.
Image Credit: Voxel8