Referencias | References
Referencias completas de vocabulario, eventos, crónicas, evidencias y otros contenidos utilizados en los proyectos relacionados con biotecnología y neurociencia de la KW Foundation.
Full references of vocabulary, events, chronicles, evidences and other contents used in KW Projects related to biotechnology and neuroscience.
Especial | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | Ñ | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | TODAS
Why Apple and Microsoft are suddenly playing nice 
Why Apple and Microsoft are suddenly playing nice
By Matt Kapko
Tense history aside, Apple and Microsoft now share considerable opportunities in the business world. Both IT administrators and users stand to benefit if friendly relations between the two technology leaders continue to develop, according to analysts and industry watchers.
Apple and Microsoft were founded less than a year apart in the mid-1970s. In the following years the companies went through multiple cycles of partnership and discord. Microsoft's surprise on-stage presence at an Apple media event last week demonstrated just how cordial things have again become as the two tech giants are seemingly pleased to be in each other's good graces.
The companies' shared future in the enterprise market in large part fuels this renewed spirit of compromise. And the software, services and devices both companies sell will be increasingly complementary.
Apple hardware, Microsoft software
Microsoft's future in the business world will relate to OS and productivity software and cloud services, while Apple maintains a significant lead when it comes to software, according to Jan Dawson, chief analyst and founder of tech research firm Jackdaw.
[Related Feature: CIOs say Apple still doesn't care about enterprise]
Microsoft "makes many of the tools employees actually need … to get their jobs done," Dawson says. "Apple obviously does make alternatives for some of those tools, but in the vast majority of cases they're either inferior or simply not supported by IT departments."
MacBooks and other Apple devices will be more compelling to enterprises if Microsoft starts treating that hardware as a "first-class citizen" for new Office apps and other software, according to Dawson. However, Apple also needs to continue to make it easier for businesses to deploy those devices at scale along with the Microsoft software they need.
"Except for Windows, Microsoft's elements will increasingly need to run on Apple hardware, so the companies will definitely be working together more," Dawson says. "The good thing is that Microsoft has stopped resisting this inevitable outcome, and is instead embracing a future that's as much about third-party devices as its own devices and operating systems."
History of ebbs and flows between Apple and Microsoft
The companies may be friendly today for revenue's sake, and for future opportunities in enterprise, but the relationship hasn't been this way for long.
Just two years ago, Apple's CEO Tim Cook painted Microsoft as a confused competitor. "They chased after netbooks," Cook said during a press event in October 2013. "Now they're trying to make PCs into tablets and tablets into PCs. Who knows what they will do next?"
During the dawn of the smartphone revolution in 2007, Microsoft's former CEO Steve Ballmer told USA Today: "There's no chance that the iPhone is going to get any significant market share. No chance."
And when the late Steve Jobs, cofounder and CEO of Apple, was asked what it was like using iTunes on a Windows PC at the 2007 D Conference, he said: "It's like giving a glass of ice water to someone in hell."
These aren't exact the sentiments of friendly corporations, but that was then, and today is a different story … for now.
"Who to know better about productivity than Microsoft?" Phil Schiller, Apple's vice president of marketing, asked a notably quiet crowd at the company's event last week before inviting Microsoft on stage to demonstrate new Office 365 features for the iPad Pro.
"Though the companies absolutely still compete, the increased degree of rationality at Microsoft has opened the door to partnerships and other forms of working together," says Dawson.
Kirk Koenigsbauer (L), Corporate Vice President, Office 365 Client Apps and Services Team, is greeted by Phil Schiller as he takes the stage to discuss Microsoft Office for the iPad Pro during an Apple media event in San Francisco, California, September 9, 2015
'Real magic happens' when Apple, Microsoft cooperate
Chip Pearson, the former CEO of JAMF Software, a mobile device management vendor for Apple products, who's now focused on strategic partnerships, says the "real magic happens" when Apple and Microsoft work together on products for enterprise. "I believe that in a perfect world, an organization or user has Microsoft applications and backend services running on Apple endpoints."
IT administrators and users both benefit from having their technology needs met through the cooperation and coexistence of both companies, according to Pearson. "It's hard to look at any human endeavor where two groups of very capable and skilled people weren't able to do more when working together."
Of course, there's no telling how long relations between the two competitive companies will continue to be friendly. "Many things change on a cyclical pattern, and there does seem to be a historical precedent for the warming trend to continue," says Pearson. "However, history isn't destiny, and humans working together for their common goals is good as long as both parties are getting their needs met."
Dawson has an equally positive outlook for the companies' alliance in enterprise, but he sees more subtle signs of compromise instead of more formal partnerships like the ones Apple struck with IBM and Cisco. "As long as Microsoft stays on this more rational, open course with regard to developing software for third party devices and platforms, I can only see the relationship continuing to warm up."
Why Is It So Hard For Robots to Pick Up Fruit? 
Why Is It So Hard For Robots to Pick Up Fruit?
Why Microsoft’s HoloLens Is the Next Big Enterprise Thing 
Why Microsoft’s HoloLens Is the Next Big Enterprise Thing
HoloLens could be the next big thing in business computing and can be used in some way to provide a better customer experience, improve business collaboration and so much more.
If you had followed along on Twitter or gone straight to the source and listened to the live streaming version of the big Microsoft Windows 10 event on Jan. 21, you probably felt the excitement. That energy was not just about Windows 10: Yeah, that operating system seems nice, and the fit and finish will probably make it the next Windows 7 — you know, the version of the product that corporations land on and run for a decade or more because it is just solid, reliable, and compatible. Everyone who skipped Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 will certainly gravitate toward a major migration toward Windows 10, and Microsoft understands this. It looks like a solid release.
But what folks were really pumped up about was the introduction of a technology and a prototype that was completely out of left field to basically anyone who watches Microsoft on a regular basis: the HoloLens.
[ Related: Microsoft Doesn’t Know What It Has With HoloLens ]
What Is Hololens?
Think of HoloLens as a better version of the Oculus Rift, which is now owned by Facebook, and a much better and more applicable to reality product than Google Glass, which was just abandoned — or, rather, put on hiatus until the fall. (Three guesses as to how long that hiatus actually is.)
[ Related: How Google Glass Could Still See Consumer Success ]
[ Related: Google Glass is Alive and Well in the Enterprise ]
HoloLens is a wearable device that takes the real world and inserts into it virtual objects; it is augmented reality at its cutting edge now. It is a pair of glasses through which you can see the real world, but it also has a unique display element that lets the computer paint images on top of that reality, in color and with an apparently astonishing closeness to reality.
No additional devices, like a smartphone or another computer, are necessary, although you have to wonder how long the battery that powers the unit will last. In any event, since this device is not yet in production, there is time to figure out the details. Let us focus on the bigger picture.
The demos that the company allowed some press to walk through were scenarios where putting virtual elements within the physical world really improves the end user experience. For example, a “father” was connected with his “daughter” via a Skype call, and the daughter was using the HoloLens while her father walked her through how to repair a plumbing issue with her sink — he was able to draw arrows basically right on top of her field of vision directing her where to put the replacement part, how to install it, what tool to use to perform each task and so on.
Rather than having to rely on only words to describe the procedure, he was able to guide the daughter through the repair easily. Another demonstration involved actually using one’s hands to interact with the virtual objects projected into the physical field of vision.
People are excited about the gaming aspect of HoloLens. Building Minecraft structures on Mars, or immersing yourself into first person shooter games in a way even the Oculus Rift did not allow you to experience. The technology is amazing; Microsoft Research has long been on the forefront of cutting-edge technology, almost to the point that their projects can sometimes seem indistinguishable from magic. Microsoft Research is a group of highly talented, intellectually gifted, top quality researchers and academicians that really develop some of the most interesting and bleeding edge technologies around.
HoloLens Is Huge for the Corporate Crowd
HoloLens has a future that not everyone quite grasping at the moment. That is, its future in business. Gaming is fun, sure, but these devices can be used in almost any business in some way to provide such a better experience for customers that I suspect they will be throwing money at you.
This device can be used in business collaboration settings, too. Imagine an interactive business review, where you literally move numbers around on a page. Imagine an earnings presentation where you can actually transform bar and pie charts to answer questions and derive insight. Even consider an analytics angle: What if you can take a virtual walking tour of all of your New York customers’ buying habits in a certain Brooklyn location?
Also, consider the potential of HoloLens alongside the absolutely gorgeous and eminently usable Surface Hub product, which was also announced at the event. Surface Hub (no, not the utility installed on all Surface Pro 3 tablets — kudos go to Redmond for yet another product naming clash) is the premium office conference room display with a reasonably powerful computer included at no additional charge — 4K resolution with a couple of display sizes, with the largest reaching a giant 84 inches diagonal, a Windows 10 computer, Office, Cortana and more, and it is touch sensitive and you can use pens on it, too. It is, literally, meant to be the hub of the conference room.
Consider what types of applications you could have while teaming up with colleagues or having a product design review on an 84-inch screen with everyone in the room using HoloLens, able to make design changes in 3D (and perhaps 4D by the time this all makes it to the market) or change the colors on parts.
Imagine how a large airplane manufacturer might use HoloLens together with the Surface Hub—or even just HoloLens by itself—to walk airframe customers through choosing interiors, which they can see virtually installed instantaneously. Imagine how large homebuilders can revolutionize their design centers by walking customers through the empty shell of a house with a couple of HoloLens units and show all sorts of upgrades, custom features, structure changes and more.
Think of hospitals revolutionizing medical and surgical training and minimizing error rates and patient deaths even further by always having a second experienced surgeon on hand virtually during difficult procedures.
If you take a couple of minutes, you can imagine many scenarios within your day where you can enhance your productivity and your business by immersing yourself into an experience.
The Last Word
Resist the strong temptation to relegate HoloLens into the category of devices that computer gaming enthusiasts and Dungeons and Dragons players use in their spare time, with not much practical application. This is anything but a toy.
The possibilities that HoloLens enables to transform the way businesses show their employees and customers their products, and the new items, services, and businesses this sort of augmented reality device can create based on those new experiences, are pretty much endless.
When HoloLens actually hits the market, expect developers to start writing apps that make these wearables sing. This kind of technology, marketed and productized appropriately, is what makes the technology field so exciting.
We may be on the cusp of the next big thing in business computing. Who would have thought it would be a pair of computerized glasses?
Jonathan Hassell runs 82 Ventures, a technical writing and consulting firm based in Charlotte, N.C.
Why the Millennials Are the Most Important Generation Yet 
Why the Millennials Are the Most Important Generation Yet
Millennials are those born between 1980-2000, today between the ages of 15-35. This post is about millennials – why they are changing the game, how to hire them, and how to keep them motivated.
The data presented below comes from Mary Meeker’s “Internet Trends Report” – one of the reports I look forward to each year. Kudos to Mary and Kleiner Perkins for this awesome data.
This is my analysis of what it all means.
Millennials Are Changing the Game
No matter what Internet-related business you’re in, millennials are your most important demographic. Understanding how they think is critical. It’s an understatement to say that the world they’ve grown up in is dramatically different than Gen X (born 1965 – 1980) and Baby Boomers (born 1946 – 1964).
This year, they became the largest generation in the workforce.
And I would posit that their workforce is still largely misunderstood – and immensely undervalued.
I personally have a team of 5 millennials that is doing amazing things – they are more flexible, motivated, creative, and hard-working than most. If you want to tap into the millennial talent pool and keep them on your team, you have to adapt to their new modes of thinking.
Millennials’ Values Are Changing
A cohort of 4,000 graduates under the age of 31, from around the world, were asked the question: which three benefits would you most value from an employer?
The top three responses, by healthy margins, might not be what you’d expect:
Empowered by a world connected by technology, millennials have new tools and capabilities at their disposal.
Many of the tasks we had to do at work have been digitized, dematerialized, demonetized, and democratized – and the people in this generation know how to leverage these exponential tools to do things faster, better, and more effectively than their predecessors.
As such, they crave flexibility. They expect to be mobile and work from home/office/cafes/etc at their will.
As the Meeker report outlines:
Millennials Live in an “On-Demand” World
As I’ve mentioned in a previous post, this year, the “on-demand” economy (think companies like Uber, AirBnb, Instacart, etc.) has exploded.
According to venture capital research firm CB Insights, funding for on-demand companies jumped 514 percent last year to $4.12 billion. New investments in early 2015 have totaled at least $3.78 billion.
And, as it also turns out, millennials make up the largest cohort of “on-demand” workers.
This isn’t a coincidence – it is largely reflective of their different mindsets.
Getting things “on-demand” – what they want, when they want, where they want, how they want – is indicative of their priorities.
Look at the chart below: Hiring managers ranked qualities each generation is more likely to possess.
The results: Millennials are significantly more narcissistic (more on this later), open to change, creative, money driven, adaptable, and entrepreneurial than other generations.
…and there is a huge disconnect
There is a perception disconnect between managers and millennials – and it is making it difficult for companies with “older” cultures to attract and retain the best talent out there.
The Career Advisory board did another study to compare the difference between managers’ and millennials’ views of the most important factors that indicate career success to millennials.
Most managers (48%) thought that MONEY was the most important thing to millennials.
What did the millennials want most? MEANINGFUL WORK.
This is consistent with my experience with the many millennial entrepreneurs and colleagues I work with, advise, invest in and support.
Here are a few tips I’ve found useful in how to hire and retain great millennials.
How to Hire and Retain Millennials
… and much, much more.
The proof is in the pudding. This most excellent blog was drafted by Cody on my team (a superstar at age 24) at 10 p.m. on a Saturday night, passed to me to edit, then to my other rockstars Marissa and Kelley at 11 p.m. for a final edit and to get out to you. I love my millennial team for their brilliance and dedication.
[image courtesy of Shutterstock; charts courtesy of KPCB]
Wikipedia y los países en desarrollo 
El servicio gratuito de Wikipedia conquista millones de suscriptores en los países en desarrollo
Por Mihaela Marín
La enciclopedia online más conocida del mundo está ganando cada vez más terreno con su proyecto Wikipedia Zero entre los usuarios de móviles de los países emergentes. Su vicepresidente de Ingeniería y Desarrollo de Producto, Erik Möller, declara en una entrevista para el periódico The Guardian que la iniciativa nacida de la Fundación Wikimedia para permitir el acceso gratuito a poblaciones situadas en los territorios emergentes ha alcanzado la cifra de 350 millones de inscritos en 29 países del mundo.
Muy parecido al programa Facebook Zero, el proyecto Wikipedia Zero se inició con el principal objetivo de eliminar la barrera de coste que impide a las poblaciones de los países en desarrollo tener acceso a los servicios de Internet. La iniciativa de reunir el conocimiento humano y hacerlo disponible de forma gratuita a todas las poblaciones se ha realizado con la ayuda de unacolaboración con los operadores de telefonía móvil dentro de un programa que se ha extendido a Tailandia, Arabia Saudí, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Jordania, Bangladesh y con las nuevas incorporaciones de este año de Kosovo, Nepal y Kirguistán:
El crecimiento del número de suscriptores ha ido acompañado de la necesidad de solucionar otros retos. Erik Möller declara que para facilitar más el trabajo de los voluntarios que aportan contenido online usando sus smartphones, el equipo técnico ha tenido que adaptar mejor la plataforma web a los dispositivos móviles. La Fundación Wikimedia también ha trabajado parareforzar las aplicaciones para iOS y Android. Al final del mes de julio hizo conocido un rediseño desde las bases, con nuevas características incluyendo mayor rapidez de navegación y la opción de editar y guardar páginas para la lectura offline entre las más importantes.
Imagen: Los países adheridos al proyecto Wikipedia Zero hasta el julio de 2014
Un proyecto complejo, pero que no abandona sus metas
Aparte de todos estos retos, una de las más difíciles tareas que la Fundación ha tenido que cumplir para llegar a los objetivos actuales ha sido la deencontrar a esos operadores móviles dispuestos a eliminar sus costespara permitir un acceso gratuito al contenido de la enciclopedia. La organización ha realizado importantes esfuerzos para convencer a estas compañías de los beneficios del proyecto principalmente porque la política de Wikipedia no admite el pago de los proveedores de telecomunicaciones y tampoco los acuerdos exclusivos:
Actualmente en su página oficial, la Fundación Wikimedia continúa su misión humanitaria de democratizar el conocimiento para las poblaciones de los países en desarrollo llamando la atención sobre los beneficios que puedan tener los operadores móviles si deciden juntarse al proyecto.
Entre los más importantes se menciona la posibilidad de ocupar una posición estratégica en un mercado en crecimiento por ofrecer un servicio que tenga un gran impacto en las vidas de muchas personas y por otro lado la oportunidad de reforzar el nombre comercial al ser vinculado a los cambios positivos (contribución a la educación, crecimiento social y soporte económico).
Mi interés por la tecnología ha nacido cuando me he dado cuenta de que nos permite ver el lado escondido de la realidad. Todavía quedan muchas cosas por descubrir y suficiente curiosidad para entender lo que realmente somos. Especializada en Periodismo y Marketing, he podido compartir experiencias con profesionales del mundo empresarial tecnológico. Siempre en búsqueda de ideas, escribo para hacer conocido el trabajo innovador, capaz de cambiar los problemas en soluciones.
Will open source save the Internet of Things? 
Will open source save the Internet of Things?
Middleware standards based on open source could be the glue that pulls IOT solutions together.
To some degree, open source is already present throughout the Internet of Things value chain. Cloud apps that collect and analyze data are heavily dependent on open source software and standards, for example.
And many of the individual IoT devices and gateways run on some version of Linux. "Device manufacturers have taken up open source software at the operating system level at a 40 to 50 percent share, but there's also a lot of proprietary and legacy software embedded in devices and that will continue," says Bill Weinberg, senior director at Black Duck Software.
"And applications will probably be proprietary because they represent an opportunity, at least in the mind of device manufacturers, to provide exclusive differentiation," he adds.
But it's not so much the technology inside the IoT devices, or end user control applications where open source will make the biggest difference. It’s where the need is the greatest -- the middleware, the messaging standards and the behind-the-scenes management applications.
Without that, customers and enterprises considering investing in IoT technology are having a hard time putting all the pieces together, and many are putting off purchases altogether to avoid betting on dead-end platforms.
The biggest standards are proprietary and, moreover, specific to niche industry verticals, says Ian Skerrett, vice president of marketing at the Ottawa-based Eclipse Foundation, one of the groups looking to create common open source standards for IoT.
On the consumer side, there are many proprietary silos as well, such as Google's Thread platform, and Apple's HomeKit. ZigBee, an older proprietary communication standard has multiple profiles within the standard, so different ZigBee devices don't necessarily speak the same language.
Wider adoption of open source will help Internet of Things ecosystems grow and develop by making it easier for products from different vendors to communicate with one another, as well as by lowering barriers to entry for new companies, and lowering costs.
However, with several different open source frameworks competing, and several entrenched proprietary platforms, it will take time to see who the winners are.
Can you hear me now?
Fragmentation is the biggest challenge right now not only for retail and enterprise customers, but also for any vendor looking to participate in the IoT.
"There are a lot of different options for how to build the software, what protocols are used to communicate," Weinberg says. "We're very early and we're not going to see a huge amount of standardization anytime soon."
For example, one manufacturer might make lights, switches, video cameras and temperature controls that interact with one another, and talk to the cloud, and can be managed via an app on a smartphone.
Another manufacturer might offer a similar setup -- but be completely incompatible with the first.
That's a great situation to be in for any manufacturer that happens to have beaten everyone else to the starting gate and becomes the dominant player. It's bad news for all the potential competitors and for any customers trying to connect devices from different manufacturers.
The workaround is middleware that can talk to devices from more than one manufacturer.
"If you're building an app, you're going to have to accommodate a wide range of devices types and a wide range of otherwise incompatible protocols," says Weinberg. "And you'll have to make some tough decisions about which devices you'll accommodate at all."
But the Open Interconnect Consortium's IoTivity project hopes to become the open source glue that pulls everything together, no workarounds necessary.
"It allows devices to discover each other, understand each other's capabilities, and have secure control functionality," says Mark Skarpness, director of embedded software at Intel’s Open Source Technology Center and chair of the IoTivity Steering Group.
"It will also support industrial automation, health care, and automotive," he adds. "It's got a very broad scope. It spans all the different domains of the Internet of Things."
Skarpness said that he doesn't expect everyone to join up all at once. "Of course Apple will do their thing, and Microsoft will do their thing," he says. "But for the broad world of IoT devices, the open source platform, embedded Linux and IoTivitiy are a perfect building block to build these products."
It's a strong foundation, he said, and will speed time to market for new devices and apps.
"Also, the collaborative benefit that you get out of working together on a common level that everyone is going to use, that's pretty powerful," he says.
The Open Interconnect Consortium was created in October with backing from Intel. There are more than 50 members, including Cisco, Acer, Dell, GE, Samsung, Honeywell, HP, Siemens, Lenovo and McAfee. A preview of its IoTivity framework was released in January. (Also read: "7 communities driving open source development".)
Its main competitor is the AllJoyn framework, from the AllSeen Alliance. As of mid-February, the Allseen Alliance, a project of the Linux Foundation, had more than 120 members, including Qualcomm, Microsoft, Haier, Panasonic, Sharp, TP-Link, Sony, LG, Cisco, D-Link, ADT, Honeywell, HTC, Lenovo, Netgear, Symantec, and Verisign.
"AllJoyn has a gateway which allows remote access to devices and fine-grained management control of those devices," says Philip DesAutels, senior director of IoT at the AllSeen Alliance.
In addition to allowing devices to talk to gateways, and, through those gateways to the cloud, it also allows for devices and apps to talk directly with one another without the need for a gateway.
There are more than 100 compatible products already on the market, DesAutels says.
"I think what we all want is things to just work," he said. "We don't want to be technologists with all the things in our lives, with TVs and our stereos and our heating systems. We want things to just work, and to work together."
Taking off the brakes
Open source does more than help products from different manufacturers work together.
By providing ready-to-go software, an open source community can help a vendor jump-start its development process.
"They get access to an exponentially greater pool of technical skills that they don't have to acquire and pay for directly," says Jeffrey Kaplan, managing director at IoT consulting firm THINKstrategies. "And if you know this industry, the hardest things to find and to acquire are software development skills."
Open source IoT software can help companies avoid having to re-invent the wheel, significantly reducing the time to market for new products.
Plus, by plugging into an existing ecosystem, a vendor can focus on their particular product, without having to worry about building the surrounding infrastructure.
With open source projects, vendors also don't have to worry about getting admitted into the club. A proprietary platform, however, may dictate design and other factors to its members.
Apple, for example, will probably be very selective in the choice of devices it supports.
"If you want to do home automation with an Apple solution, you have to buy everything from the Apple ecosystem, and that's why I think it will fail," says Eclipse Foundation's Skerrett. "Your garage door opener isn't going to be built for Apple. And your heartbeat monitor -- that's for sure not going to based on Apple."
Plus, proprietary platforms may require royalty payments, he says, which is yet another hurdle for companies to overcome. "Vendors don't want to pay royalties to their competitors.”
The Eclipse Foundation grew out of IBM's Eclipse Project and currently has 228 members, including IBM, Google, Oracle, SAP, Siemens, Texas Instruments, Research in Motion, BMW, Cisco, Dell, Ericksson, HP, Intel, Nokia, and Bosch.
According to Black Duck's Weinberg, AllJoyn from the AllSeen Alliance is the best-known of the competing open source IoT frameworks. But it's too early to place any bets, he says.
And while the AllSeen Alliance has been around for a while, the newly formed Open Interconnect Consortium has some big names in its member list as well.
"We have relationships with companies in both those organizations, as well as companies behind the organizations," he says. "And we're well aware that there are other parties out there -- and China might be doing their own thing with their own standards."
AMD, one of the companies making processors for IoT devices, is keeping a close eye on the open source IoT projects.
"What looks interesting is the AllSeen Alliance," says Dilip Ramachandran, director of marketing for the embedded business at Advanced Micro Devices. "We're not partners yet, but are looking at it."
He too, agreed that it's still too early to see which open source stack will eventually win out.
"As the solutions come in, it will take a couple of years to know whether one is going to dominate over the other," he says.
Korolov is a freelance writer. She can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Will You Ever Be Able to Upload Your Brain? 
Will You Ever Be Able to Upload Your Brain?
World Wide Web (WWW) 
En informática, la World Wide Web (WWW) o Red Informática Mundial, es un sistema de distribución de información basado en hipertexto, accesible a través de Internet. Con un navegador o browser, el usuario visualiza sitios compuestos por páginas con textos, imágenes, vídeos u otros contenidos multimedia. A través de hipervínculos (links), el usuario puede acceder a contenidos relacionados con el contexto en el que se encuentra. La Web fue creada en 1989 por el inglés Tim Berners-Lee con la ayuda del belga Robert Cailliau mientras trabajaban en el CERN en Ginebra, Suiza. El trabajo fue publicado en 1992. Desde entonces, Berners-Lee ha jugado un papel activo guiando el desarrollo de estándares para la “red de redes”. En los últimos años ha abogado por su visión de una Web semántica.
A demostration of WorldKit that shows an interactiva recipe guide
Conoce a WorldKit, el proyector que transforma cualquier superficie en una pantalla táctil
Meet WorldKit, the projector that turns everything into a touchscreen
The goal is to transform all of your surroundings into touchscreens, equipping walls, tables, and couches with interactive, intuitive controls.
When it comes to technological innovation, there are two basic approaches. You can start big, flashy, and expensive, and hope that eventually your tech invention comes down enough in price for an average user to afford – think of GPS devices, for instance, which were the realm of high-budget military agencies long before ordinary civilians could dream of buying one; or, you can set out from the beginning to design something life-changing that everyone can have access to, rather than just an elite few.
The research team behind WorldKit, a new, experimental technology system, is trying to straddle the gulf between these two extremes. The goal is to transform all of your surroundings into touchscreens, equipping walls, tables, and couches with interactive, intuitive controls. But the team wants to do so without installing oversized iPads into every surface in your home, which could easily run up a six-figure price tag.
So how does the magic happen? With a simple projector – a projector paired with a depth sensor, to be precise. “It’s this interesting space of having projected interfaces on the environment, using your whole world as a sort of gigantic tablet,” said Chris Harrison, a soon-to-be professor in human-computer interaction at Carnegie Mellon University. Robert Xiao, a PhD candidate at Carnegie Mellon and lead researcher on the project, explained that WorldKit uses a depth camera to sense where flat surfaces are in your environment. “We allow a user to basically select a surface on which they can ‘paint’ an interactive object, like a button or sensor,” Xiao said.
We recently chatted with both Harrison and Xiao about their work on the WorldKit project, and learned just how far their imaginations run when it comes to the future of touch technology and ubiquitous computing. Below, we talk about merging the digital and the physical worlds, as well as creative applications for WorldKit that involve really thinking outside the box (or outside the monitor, in this case).
Understanding WorldKit’s workings
We know; the concept of a touchscreen on any surface is a little far out there, so let’s break it down. WorldKit works by pairing a depth-sensing camera lens, such as the one that the Kinect uses, with a projector lens. Then, programmers write short scripts on a MacBook Pro using Java, similar to those they might write for an Arduino, to tell the depth camera how to react when someone makes certain gestures in front of it. The depth camera interprets the gestures and then tells the projector to react by projecting certain interfaces. For instance, if someone makes a circular gesture, the system can interpret that by projecting a dial where the gesture was made. Then, when someone “adjusts” the dial by gesturing in front of it, the system can adjust a volume control elsewhere.
The brilliance – and the potential frustration – of this system lies in its nearly endless possibilities. Currently, whatever you want WorldKit to do, you must program it to do yourself. Xiao and Harrison expressed hope that one day, once WorldKit reaches the consumer realm, there might be an online forum where people can upload and download programming scripts (much like apps) in order to make their WorldKit system perform certain tasks. However, at the moment, WorldKit remains in an R&D phase in the academic realm, allowing its creators to dream big about what they would like to make it do eventually.
In any case, the easiest way to understand how WorldKit works is to watch a demo video of it in action. In the video, researchers touch various surfaces to “paint” them with light from the projector. Afterward, the WorldKit system uses the selected area to display a chosen interface, such as a menu bar or a sliding lighting-control dial, which can then be manipulated through touch gestures.
Robert Xiao demostrates how to use WorldKit to create a radial dial interface on any available flat surface - in this case, a table
Currently, WorldKit’s depth sensor is nothing other than a Kinect – the same one that shipped with the Xbox 360 – that connects to a projector that’s mounted to a ceiling or tripod. While this combo is already sensitive enough to track individual fingers and multi-directional gestures down to the centimeter, it does have one major drawback: size. “Certainly the system as it is right now is kind of big, and we all admit that,” Xiao said.
Lights, user, action: Putting WorldKit to use
But the team has high hopes for the technology on the near horizon. “We’re already seeing cell phones on the market that have projectors built in,” Xiao said. “Maybe the back camera, one day, is a depth sensor … You could have WorldKit on your phone.” Harrison added that WorldKit could allow users to take full advantage of their phones for the first time. “A lot of smartphones you have nowadays are easily powerful enough to be a laptop, they just don’t have screens big enough to do it,” Harrison said. “So with WorldKit, you could have one of these phones be your laptop, and it would just project your desktop onto your actual desk.”
With projection, you can do some very clever things that basically alter the world in terms of aesthetics.
If Harrison and Xiao can imagine the mobile version of WorldKit on a smartphone in five years’ time, they have an even crazier vision for 10 or 15 years down the line. “We could actually put the entire WorldKit setup into something about the size of a lightbulb,” Xiao said. For these researchers, a lightbulb packed full of WorldKit potential has truly revolutionary implications. “We’re looking at that as almost as big as the lighting revolution of the early 1800s,” Xiao added.
The possibilities for WorldKit, as you might imagine, are limitless. So far, Harrison and Xiao’s ideas have included an away-from-office status button – the virtual version of a post-it note – and a set of digital TV controls. “You won’t ever have to find your remote again,” Xiao said.
The team’s already envisioning much more ambitious applications, such as experimental interior design. According to Harrison, you could make your own wallpaper, or change the look of your couch. “With projection, you can do some very clever things that basically alter the world in terms of aesthetics,” Harrison said. “Instead of mood lighting, you could have mood interaction.”
The CamBoard Nano depth camera pairs with a PicoP projector by Microvision
Xiao, meanwhile, fantasized about the system’s gaming potential. “You could augment the floor so that you didn’t want to step on it, and then play a lava game,” he said, describing a game where you have to cross from one end of the floor to the other, using only the tables and chairs. “You can imagine this being a very exciting gaming platform if you want to do something physical, instead of just using a controller.”
Blurring the boundaries between digital and physical
Xiao has good reason to be enthusiastic. He believes WorldKit gets at the heart at one of the biggest goals of computing research. “Eventually we’d like to see computers sort of fade into the background, and just become the way you do things,” he said. “Right now, it’s very explicit whenever you’re operating a computer that you are interacting with a computer.”
Robert Xiao demonstrates how a single WorldKit system can create various interfaces on multiple surfaces at once -in this case, a drop-down menu and volumen and lighting controls for watching a movie.
Indeed, part of what makes WorldKit so exciting is that it incorporates real, physical materials into its virtual play. But Harrison is more hesitant to claim that this is always a good thing, especially when it comes to broad, philosophical questions about aesthetics. “In art, there’s a lot that’s nice about having it be rich, and physical, and also enduring,” Harrison argued, talking about digitally “painting” a surface using WorldKit. “So when you go over to the digital domain, are we using some of the things that make art a fundamental part of the human experience? Or are we losing something?”
Google Glass and WorldKit: Seeing vs. touching
There is one realm in which Harrison seems certain that WorldKit’s unique blend of physical and digital properties are at an advantage, and that’s in contrast to Google Glass. While both approaches attempt to augment reality through embedded computing, Harrison believes that Google Glass’s reliance on virtual gestures falls a bit flat.
The problem with clicking virtual buttons in the air is that’s not really something that humans do…
“The problem with clicking virtual buttons in the air is that’s not really something that humans do,” Harrison said. “We work from tables, we work on walls … that’s something we do on a daily basis … we don’t really claw at the air all that often.” To really understand what he means, just remember when Bluetooth first came out. Not only did everyone look crazy talking to themselves on street corners, it was hard not to feel self-conscious starting a conversation into empty air without the physical phone as a prop.
Xiao agreed, emphasizing that WorldKit is able to promote instinctual, unforced interaction by relying on physical objects. “One of the advantages of WorldKit is that all the interactions are out in the world, so you are interacting with something very real and very tangible,” Xiao said. “People are much more willing, much more able, to interact with it in a fluid and natural way.” In this case, perhaps touching – rather than seeing – means believing.
A ray of light: looking into the future
Like true academics, Xiao and Harrison agreed on one of the future applications they would most like to see from WorldKit in the days to come: “A digital whiteboard,” they chimed simultaneously. Why? Unlike a traditional board, a digital whiteboard would allow computerized collaboration in real-time.
Indeed, Xiao and Harrison are no strangers to collaboration – they strongly encourage crowdsourcing of their new technology. Instead of wanting to protect and commercialize WorldKit at this point, they would rather see it developed to its full potential. They are in the process of releasing WorldKit’s source code, and after attending the CHI 2013 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, the “premier international conference on human-computer interaction” held in Paris last April, they’re hoping to get some of the 3,600 other attendees and researchers tinkering with the system soon.
“We’re primarily engineers,” Harrison said. “There are a lot of designers and application builders out there that I’m sure are going to have crazy awesome ideas of what to do with this, [and] just the two of us cannot possibly explore that entire space.”
Even now, researchers in other fields have already started applying WorldKit in ways Xiao and Harrison might never have anticipated. Harrison and Xiao are actually collaborating on a study at the moment with the Human Engineering Research Labs over in Pittsburgh. “They’re primarily concerned with people with cognitive disabilities,” Xiao said. “These are people who may need extra instructions for doing things.”
In the study, cognitively disabled participants are asked to follow a recipe to cook a dish. To help them, WorldKit projects descriptions of the necessary ingredients onto the kitchen table, such as three tomatoes or a cup of water, and doesn’t move on to the next step of the recipe until all the ingredients are physically in place on the table. Essentially, Xiao argued, WorldKit can act as a kind of prosthetic to help the cognitively disabled navigate through daily tasks in their environment.
Ultimately, whether we’re talking about an interactive whiteboard or a digital cooking assistant, the goal of WorldKit is the same: using embedded computing to make the interactions between people and computers as seamless, natural, and effortless as possible. Once that happens – once we are actually able to take advantage of computing everywhere without ever touching a computer – all of our lives have the potential to get better.