Referencias | References
Referencias completas de vocabulario, eventos, crónicas, evidencias y otros contenidos utilizados en los proyectos relacionados con biotecnología y neurociencia de la KW Foundation.
Full references of vocabulary, events, chronicles, evidences and other contents used in KW Projects related to biotechnology and neuroscience.
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Big data projects: To build or to buy? 
Big data projects: To build or to buy?
Big Data 
"Big data" es un término aplicado a conjuntos enormes de datos que superan la capacidad del software estándar para ser capturados, gestionados y procesados en un tiempo razonable. Los tamaños del "big data" se hallan constantemente en aumento. En 2012 se dimensionaba su tamaño entre una docena de terabytes y varios petabytes en un solo data set (conjunto de datos). Los científicos encontraban limitaciones debido al volumen generado en ciertas áreas tales como: meteorología, genómica, simulaciones de procesos físicos, investigaciones biológicas y ambientales. Las dificultades también incluían a los motores de búsqueda en internet, sistemas financieros, datawarehouse e inteligencia de negocios, bitácoras, monitorización, seguridad, trazabilidad, datos geográficos, espionaje y más.
An architect's guide: How to use big data
This essential guide shows how organizations are using big data and offers advice for IT professionals working with the technology.
Employees in organizations of all sizes can be faced with the daunting task of figuring out how to use big data and how to best manage it. Some IT professionals are tasked to use technology such as graph databases to crunch large volumes of data. Other developers need to be able to use tools like Hadoop to build systems capable of handling varying flows of data.
This guide brings together a range of stories that highlight examples of how to use big data, management techniques, trends with the technology, and key terms developers need to know.
1. The cloud and big data
Techniques for working with big data and the cloud
What is big data? How should it be used? These are two questions people commonly ask when they begin working with large volumes of data. While use cases are evolving, there are some tips and tricks that can be gleaned from success stories.
The following is a collection of articles going over the basics of working with big data.
Get answers to frequently asked questions about what big data is, why it can be a problem and how big data tools will be part of the solution.Continue Reading
Organizations are handling more and more data all the time, and a big problem is figuring out how to find an important piece of information in peta-bytes of big data. How can it be done? Cloud based technologies that can burst and grow are becoming the standard solution. Continue Reading
Achieving an affordable database solution that is both scalable and performant has always been a challenge, but Amazon has put scalability and performance within the reach of all sizes of business with their NoSQL solutions that have grown out of their Dynamo based big data systems.Continue Reading
Many organizations are finding that current IT setups cannot meet modern demands, and in some instances, using data grid technologies can help.Continue Reading
Data persistence can be problematic because it is often related to how an application is functioning. Continue Reading
When designing big data applications, an important consideration is whether to use SOA or RESTful APIs to connect big data components and services to the rest of the application. Continue Reading
2. Using Hadoop
Popular tools for working with big data
It's difficult to discuss how to use big data and managing large volumes of data without discussing Hadoop, a Java-based framework. Megacorporations like Google and IBM have capitalized on the technology, but that doesn't mean smaller companies don't stand to benefit from it as well.
Read on for technical advice about working with Hadoop.
YARN represents the biggest architectural change in Hadoop since it's inception over seven years ago. Now, Hadoop goes beyond MapReduce to provide scheduled processing while simultaneously processing big data. Continue Reading
MapReduce has matured, and so has Hadoop, and together under the umbrella of YARN, these powerful technologies are working together better than ever to deliver faster and more flexible big data solutions to the enterprise. Continue Reading
Learn about the next steps in big data trends for the enterprise in 2014.Continue Reading
3. Big data in marketing
Benefit from harnessing big data
Long gone are the days of marketers scratching their heads to determine ways to use big data to their advantage. Organizations of all sizes are learning the benefits of being able to analyze big data and turn that information into a powerful resource to reach consumers. With this movement comes the need for IT professionals to know how to build systems able to wrangle large volumes of data.
The following is a collection of articles that highlight the basics of using big data in marketing.
There is a shift taking place in the business world, as big data in marketing empowers customers over companies. Continue Reading
Researchers and business users alike analyze big data in order to glean insights as to what customers actually want and need. Continue Reading
Organizations are taking advantage of big data management tools as applications are required to handle a growing volume of data. Continue Reading
4. Graph database use cases
Make visual representations with big data
Implementing graph databases is one example of the ways organizations have learned to make meaningful use of big data. While the technology has its roots in social media, there are practical uses for graph databases that extend beyond Facebook. From dating sites to online retailers, the use cases are extensive.
Read on to learn more about big data and graph databases.
At Big Data Techcon 2014, Software field engineer Max de Marzi makes a case for enterprise graph searches using the Neo4j database. Continue Reading
While the most commonly known graph database use cases involve social media, it's not the only market to make use of the technology. Continue Reading
Software field engineer Max De Marzi explains why graph searches and big databases can be of practical use to the enterprise. Continue Reading
Common big data terms
This glossary provides common terms related to big data.
Big data is an evolving term that describes any voluminous amount of structured, semi-structured and unstructured data that has the potential to be mined for information. Although big data doesn't refer to any specific quantity, the term is often used when speaking about petabytes and exabytes of data. Continue Reading
Big data analytics is the process of examining large amounts of different data types, or big data, in an effort to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. Continue Reading
Big data management is the organization, administration and governance of large volumes of both structured and unstructured data. Continue Reading
A graph database, also called a graph-oriented database, is a type of NoSQL database that uses graph theory to store, map and query relationships. A graph database is essentially a collection of nodes and edges. Each node represents an entity and each edge represents a relationship between two nodes. Continue Reading
Hadoop is a free, Java-based programming framework that supports the processing of large data sets in a distributed computing environment. It is part of the Apache project sponsored by the Apache Software Foundation. Continue Reading
MapReduce is a software framework that allows developers to write programs that process massive amounts of unstructured data in parallel across a distributed cluster of processors or stand-alone computers.Continue Reading
Big data, big challenges: Hadoop in the enterprise 
Big data, big challenges: Hadoop in the enterprise
Fresh from the front lines: Common problems encountered when putting Hadoop to work -- and the best tools to make Hadoop less burdensome
As I work with larger enterprise clients, a few Hadoop themes have emerged. A common one is that most companies seem to be trying to avoid the pain they experienced in the heyday of JavaEE, SOA, and .Net -- as well as that terrible time when every department had to have its own portal.
To this end, they're trying to centralize Hadoop, in the way that many companies attempt to do with RDBMS or storage. Although you wouldn't use Hadoop for the same stuff you'd use an RDBMS for, Hadoop has many advantages over the RDBMS in terms of manageability. The row-store RDBMS paradigm (that is, Oracle) has inherent scalability limits, so when you attempt to create one big instance or RAC cluster to serve all, you end up serving none. With Hadoop, you have more ability to pool compute resources and dish them out.
Unfortunately, Hadoop management and deployment tools are still early stage at best. As awful as Oracle's reputation may be, I could install it by hand in minutes. Installing a Hadoop cluster that does more than "hello world" will take hours at least. Next, when you start handling hundreds or thousands of nodes, you'll find the tooling a bit lacking.
Companies are using devops tools like Chef, Puppet, and Salt to create manageable Hadoop solutions. They face many challenges on the way to centralizing Hadoop:
On one hand, many organizations have deployed Hadoop successfully. On the other, if this smells like building your own PaaS with devops tools, your nose is working correctly. You don't have a lot of choice yet. Solutions are coming, but none really solve the problems of deploying and maintaining Hadoop in a large organization yet:
What about opting for a Hadoop provider in the public cloud? Well, there are a few answers to that question. For one, at a certain scale you begin to stop believing claims that Amazon is cheaper than having your own internal IT team maintaining things. Two, many companies have (real or imagined) beliefs around data security and regulation that prevent them from going to the cloud. Third, uploading larger data sets may not be practical, based on the amount of bandwidth you can buy and the time you need it to be processed/uploaded. Finally, many of the same challenges (especially around diverse workloads) persist in the cloud.
After the vendor wars subside and the shrill pitch of multiple solutions in the marketplace fades, we'll eventually have a turnkey solution for dealing with multiple workloads, diverse services, and different use cases in a way that provisions both the infrastructure and service components on demand.
For now, expect a lot of custom scripting and recipes. Organizations that make large-scale use of this technology simply can't wait to start centralizing. The cost of building and maintaining disparate clusters outweighs the cost of custom-building or deploying immature technology.
Andrew C. Oliver is a professional cat herder who moonlights as a software consultant. He is president and founder of Mammoth Data (formerly Open Software Integrators), a big data consulting firm based in Durham, N.C.
Big Picture 
La expresión “big picture” se utiliza como sinónimo de “panorama general”, “situación en su conjunto” o “visión global”.
Bill Gates 
William Henry Gates III (Seattle, Washington, 28 de octubre de 1955), más conocido como Bill Gates, es un empresario y filántropo estadounidense, cofundador de la empresa de software Microsoft. Recientemente volvió a ostentar el título de ser el hombre más rico del mundo, con una fortuna estimada en 72.7 mil millones de dólares.
El lenguaje de programación bio+ se impuso a partir del año Y.
La Biomimética en acción | Biomimicry in action
por Janine Benyus
Science writer, innovation consultant, conservationist
A self-proclaimed nature nerd, Janine Benyus' concept of biomimicry has galvanized scientists, architects, designers and engineers into exploring new ways in which nature's successes can inspire humanity. Full bio
Janine Benyus tiene un mensaje para inventores: Al buscar soluciones de diseño, busca primero en la naturaleza. Es ahí donde encontrarás la inspiración para crear diseños impermeables, aerodinámicos, alimentados por energía solar, y mucho más. Aquí nos revela dozenas de nuevos productos que parten de los procesos de la naturaleza y con resultados espectaculares.
0:11 - Si yo pudiera revelar algo que no podemos ver, al menos en las culturas modernas, revelaría algo que hemos olvidado, algo que antes sabíamos con la misma certeza con la que conocemos nuestros propios nombres y esa cosa, es que vivimos en un universo competente, que formamos parte de un planeta brillante. Y que estamos rodeados de genialidad.
0:42 - La Biomimética es una disciplina nueva que intenta aprender de esos genios, y de seguir sus consejos, consejos de diseño. Ahí es donde vivo yo. y también es mi universidad. Estoy rodeada de genialidad. No puedo evitar recordar los organismos y los ecosistemas que saben como vivir con elegancia en este planeta Esto es lo que te diría que recordaras si lo llegaras a olvidar otra vez. Recuerda esto. Esto es lo que pasa cada año. Esto es lo que cumple con su promesa. Mientras que nosotros pagamos las fianzas, esto es lo que ha pasado. Primavera.
1:30 - Imagina diseñar la primavera. Imagina semejante orquestación. Crees que TED es dificil de organizar. (Risas) ¿Verdad? Imagina... y si no lo has hecho recientemente, hazlo. Imagina el cronometraje, la coordinacción, todo esto sin leyes jerárquicas o políticas, o protocolos de cambio climático. Esto pasa cada año. Hay mucha presunción Hay amor en el aire. Hay grandes estrenos. Y los organismos, podría prometerlo tiene todas sus prioridades en orden.
2:20 - Tengo a un vecino que me mantiene en contacto con todo esto. Porque vive casi siempre boca arriba,mirando estas hierbas. Y una vez vino hacia mi, tenía unos siete u ocho años cuando vino a mi lado. Y había un avispero que había dejado crecer en mi jardín, justo fuera de mi puerta. La mayoría de gente los tiran cuando son pequeños. Pero a mi me fascinaba. Porque estaba mirando una papelería fina Italiana Y vino el a tocar la puerta. Venía cada día a enseñarme algo. Y tocaba la puerta como un pajaro carpintero hasta que le abriera. Y me preguntó como había hecho esa casa para las avispas. Porque nunca había visto una tan grande. Y le dije, "Sabes, Cody, son las avispas que la hicieron." Y la miramos juntos. Y podía entender porqué el pensaba, que estaba hecha con tanta belleza. Era tan arquitectónica. Tan precisa.
3:25 - Pero me di cuenta, como en su pequeña vida ya creía el mito de que si algo está tan bien hecho, es seguramente porque nosotros lo hicimos. Como es que no sabía, es lo que todos hemos olvidado, que no somos los primeros en construir. No somos los primeros en procesar la celulosa. No somos los primeros en fabricar papel. No somos los primeros en intentar optimizar el espacio, o de impermeabilizar, o de calentar o enfriar una estructura. No somos los primeros en construir casas para nuestros hijos.
4:05 - Lo que está pasando ahora, en este campo llamado biomimética, es que la gente vuelve a recordar que organismos, otros organismos, el resto de la naturaleza, están haciendo cosas muy similares a las que nosotros necesitamos hacer. Pero el hecho es que lo están haciendo de una manera que les ha permitido vivir con elegancia en este planeta durante millones de años Así que estas personas, los biomiméticos, son aprendizes de la naturaleza. Y están enfocados en la función. Lo que quisiera hacer es enseñaros algunas de las cosas que están aprendiendo. Se han preguntado a ellos mismos, "¿Qué pasa si cada vez que comienzo a inventar algo, Pregunto, '¿Como resolvería esto la naturaleza?'"
4:51 - Y esto es lo que están aprendiendo. Esta es una foto increíble de un fotógrafo checo que se llama Jack Hedley. Se trata de la historia de un ingeniero de J.R. West. de los que hacen el tren bala. Lo llamaron tren bala porque la parte frontal era redondeada. Pero cada vez que entraba en un túnel se acumulaba una onda de presión. Y generaba un estallido sónico al salir. Así que el jefe del ingeniero le dijo:"Encuentra una manera de acallar el tren."
5:17 - Resulta que el ingeniero era ornitólogo. Se fue a lo que sería una reunion de la Sociedad Audubon. Y estudió, había una película sobre el martín pescador. Y pensó para el, "Van de una densidad, el aire, a otra densidad, el agua, sin siquiera salpicar. Mira esta foto. Sin salpicar, para poder ver los peces. Y pensó, "¿Y si hacemos esto?" Acallaron el tren. Lo aceleraron un 10 por ciento utilizando 15 por ciento menos de electricidad.
5:48 - ¿Como hace la naturaleza para repeler a las bacterias? No somos los primeros en protegernos de alguna bacteria. Resulta que -- esto es un Tiburón de Galápagos No tiene bacterias en su superficie, ni suciedad, ni percebes. Y no es porque va rápido. De hecho es un tiburón que se mueve lentamente.¿Entonces como hace para que su cuerpo no acumule bacterias? No lo hace con ningún químico.Resulta que lo hace con los mismos dentículos que tienen los trajes de baño de Speedo, que rompieron todos esos records Olímpicos.
6:22 - Pero es un patrón particular. Y ese patrón, la arquitectura de ese patrón de los dentículos de la pielimpide que las bacterias se pueda adherir. Hay una compañia que se llama Sharklet Technologies que está utilizando esto en las superficies de hospitales para prevenir las bacterias. Que es preferible a impregnarlas con antibacteriales y productos agresivos a los cuales muchos organismos se están haciendo resistentes. Infecciones que proceden de hospitales están matando a más personas cada año, en los Estados Unidos de los que mueren de SIDA o cancer o accidentes de coche combinados,aproximadamente 100 mil.
7:04 - Este bichito vive en el desierto de Namíbia. No dispone de agua para poder beber. Pero es capaz de extraer agua de la niebla. Tiene unos bultitos en la parte trasera que protege sus alas. Y esos bultos actúan como un imán al agua. Las puntas atraen al agua y los lados son cerosos La niebla se acumula en las puntas. Se desliza por los lados y entra por la boca del animal. Hay un científico aquí en Oxfordque estudió esto, Andrew Parker. Y ahora oficinas de kinética y de arquitectura como Grimshaw están viendo la posibilidad de aplicar esto a la superficie de los edificios para que puedan captar agua de la niebla. diez veces más que nuestras redes de captura de niebla.
7:49 - El CO2 como material de construcción. Los organismos no interpretan el CO2 como veneno. Plantas y organismos que crean conchas, utilizan el coral como elemento de construcción. Ahora existe un fabricante de cemento en Estados Unidos que se llama Clara. Han tomado prestada la receta del arrecife de coral. Y están utilizando el CO2 como elemento de construcción en el cemento, en el hormigón. En lugar de, el cemento normalmente emite una tonelada de CO2 por cada tonelada de cemento. Ahora están invirtiendo esa ecaución y tomando la mitad de una tonelada de CO2 gracias a la receta del coral.
8:25 - Ninguno de ellos están utilizando los organismos en sí. En realidad solo están utilizando los modelos o las recetas de los organismos. ¿Como hace la naturaleza para captar la energía solar? Este es un nuevo tipo de célula solar que se basa en el funcionamiento de una hoja. Es auto-montable. Se puede aplicar a cualquier tipo de sustrato. Es extremadamente económico y recargable cada cinco años. De hecho es una empresa con la que estoy colaborando llamada OneSun, con Paul Hawken.
8:53 - Hay muchas maneras en la que la naturaleza filtra el agua que desaliniza el agua. Nosotros tomamos el agua y la empujamos contra una membrana. Y luego nos preguntamos porqué esa membrana se atascay porqué consume tanta energía. La naturaleza hace algo mucho más elegante. Y está en cada célula.Cada glóbulo rojo de tu cuerpo ahora mismo tiene unos poros en forma de reloj de arena llamados acuaporinas. Exportan moléculas de agua. Es una especie de ósmosis activo. Exportan moléculas de agua a través de, y deja a los solutos del otro lado. Una empresa llamada Aquaporin han comenzado a crear membranas de desalinización que imitan esta tecnología.
9:35 - Árboles y huesos están en constante regeneración mediante lineas de tensión. Este algorítmo se introdujo en un programa de software que está siendo utilizado para aligerar puentes, y aligerar vigas de construcción. De hecho G.M. Opel lo utilizó para crear ese esqueleto que ves ahí, en lo que llaman su coche biónico. La ligereza de su esqueleto utiliza un mínimo de material, como debe hacer un organismo, para conseguir máxima resistencia.
10:10 - Este escarabajo, a diferencia de esta bolsa de patatas aqui, utiliza un material, el chitín. Y encuentra muchas maneras de sacarle provecho. Es impermeable. Es duro y resistente. Respira. Crear color a través de estructura. Mientras que esa bolsa utiliza unas siete capas para hacer todas esas cosas. Una de las invenciones más importantes que tenemos que conseguir tan solo para acercarnos a lo que son capaces estos organismos es de encontrar una manera de minimizar la cantidad de material, el tipo de material que utilizamos y añadirle diseño. Se utilizan cinco polímeros en el mundo natural para hacer todo lo que ves. Nosotros utilizamos alrededor de 350 polímeros para crear todo esto.
11:03 - Naturaleza es nano. La nanotecnología, nanopartículas, se escucha mucha preocupación sobre esto.Nanopartículas sueltas. Lo que me parece más interesante es que poca gente pregunta, "¿Como podemos consultar a la naturaleza para hacer la nanotecnología más segura? La naturaleza lo hecho durante mucho tiempo. Incrustar nanopartículas en un material, por ejemplo, siempre. De hecho, las bacterias reductoras de azufre como parte de su síntesis, emiten como subproducto, nanopartículas en el agua. Pero justo después, emiten una proteína que reune y agrega esas nanopartículas. Hasta que salen de la solución.
11:47 - Consumo de energía. Los organismos la consumen a sorbos. Porque han de trabajar o negociar por cada pequeño sorbo que reciben. Y uno de los campos más grandes ahora, en el mundo de redes de energía, se oye hablar de la red inteligente. Uno de los principales consultores son los insectos sociales.Tecnología de enjambre. Hay una compañia que se llama Regen. Estudian como las hormigas y las abejas encuentran su comida y sus flores de manera más eficiente como las colmenas. Y diseñan electrodomésticos que se comunican entre sí a través del mismo algorítmo para determinar como minimizar la máxima utilización de energía.
12:33 - Hay un grupo de científicos en Cornell que están creando lo que ellos llaman un arbol sintético. Porque según dicen, "No hay surtidor debajo de un árbol." Su acción y transpiración capilar arrasta agua hacia arriba, gota a gota, a través de las raízes hasta liberarla por las hojas. Y están creando -- puedes imaginarlo como si fuera un especie de papel de pared. Quieren colocarlo sobre el interior de los edificios para distribuir agua sin la necesidad de bombas o surtidores.
13:06 - La anguila eléctrica de Amazonas. En peligro de extinción, algunas de estas especies, crean 600 voltios de electricidad con químicos que existen dentro de tu cuerpo. Pero incluso más interesante me parece el hecho de que 600 voltios no los frie muertos. Conoceis el uso del PVC. Lo utilizamos como aislamientopara encubrir alambrado. ¿Como es que estos organismos son capaces de aislarse de su propia carga eléctrica? Estas son algunas de las preguntas que aún nos tenemos que hacer.
13:35 - Este es un fabricante de turbinas eólicas que consultó a una ballena. La ballena jorobada tiene aletas con orillas serradas Y estas orillas hacen circular el agua de manera que reducen la resistencia del agua en un 32 por ciento. Como consecuencia, las turbinas eólicas pueden llegar a rotar con muy poco viento.
13:57 - El MIT acaba de crear un nuevo chip de radio que utiliza mucha menos energía que los chips actuales.Se basa en el funcionamiento de la cóclea del oído, capaz de captar señales de internet, inalámbricas, televisión y radio, en un único chip. Y por fin, a escala de un ecosistema.
14:19 - En el Biomimicry Guild, mi consultoría, trabajamos con HOK Architects, estudiamos como construir ciudades enteras, en el departamento de planeamiento. Y lo que preguntamos es, ¿No deben nuestras ciudades rendir lo mismo, en términos de servicios de ecosistema, que los sistemas nativos que han reemplazado? Estamos creando algo llamado Estándard de Rendimiento Ecológico, que somete a las ciudades a un estándar más alto.
14:48 - La pregunta es -- la biomimética es una herramienta de innovación muy poderosa. La pregunta que yo haría es, "¿Qué vale la pena resolver?" Si no has visto esto, es muy impresionante. El Dr. Adam Neiman.Es una representación de toda el agua en la Tierra en relación al volumen de la Tierra, todo el hielo, toda el auga dulce, todo el agua salada, y toda la atmósfera que podemos respirar, en relación al volumen de la Tierra. Y dentro de esas esferas, vida, más de 3.8 mil millones de años, ha creado para nosotros un lugar habitable y de abundancia.
15:26 - Y estamos en una cola muy muy larga de organismos que han surgido en este planeta para preguntarnos, "¿Como podemos vivir aquí con elegancia a largo plazo?" ¿Como podemos hacer lo que la vida misma ha sabido hacer? Crear las condiciones que favorcen la vida. Para hacer esto, el reto de diseño de nuestro siglo, creo yo, es volver a recordar a esos genios, y de alguna manera reencontrarnos con ellos.
16:02 - Una de las grandes ideas, uno de los grandes proyectos en el que he tenido el honor de participar es una nueva web. Y os animo a todos a visitarla. Se llama AskNature.org. Y lo que estamos intentando hacer, en un estilo-TED, es organizar toda la información biológica por diseño y función de ingeniería.
16:21 - Estamos trabajando con EOL, Enciclopedia de la Vida, el "TED wish" de Ed Wilson. El está recogiendo toda la información biológica en un portal. Y los científicos que contribuyen a EOL están respondiendo a una pregunta. "¿Qué podemos aprender de este organismo?" Y entonces esa información es la que irá a AskNature.org. Y esperamos que, cualquier inventor, en cualquier lugar del mundo, en el momento de creación, podrá introducir, "¿Como hace la naturaleza para desalinizar el agua?" Y le saldrá una lista con manglares, tortugas de mar, hasta riñones humanos.
16:57 - Y comenzaremos a poder hacer como hace Cody, y realmente estar en contacto con estos models increíbles, estos sabios que han estado aquí mucho más tiempo que nosotros. Ojalá, que con la ayuda de todos ellos, aprendamos a vivir en esta Tierra, en este hogar que es nuestro, pero no solo de nosotros. Muchas gracias. (Aplauso)
Biomimicry in action
0:11 - If I could reveal anything that is hidden from us, at least in modern cultures, it would be to reveal something that we've forgotten, that we used to know as well as we knew our own names. And that is that we live in a competent universe, that we are part of a brilliant planet, and that we are surrounded by genius.
0:42 - Biomimicry is a new discipline that tries to learn from those geniuses, and take advice from them, design advice. That's where I live, and it's my university as well. I'm surrounded by genius. I cannot help butremember the organisms and the ecosystems that know how to live here gracefully on this planet. This is what I would tell you to remember if you ever forget this again. Remember this. This is what happens every year. This is what keeps its promise. While we're doing bailouts, this is what happened. Spring.
1:30 - Imagine designing spring. Imagine that orchestration. You think TED is hard to organize. (Laughter) Right? Imagine, and if you haven't done this in a while, do. Imagine the timing, the coordination, all without top-down laws, or policies, or climate change protocols. This happens every year. There is lots of showing off. There is lots of love in the air. There's lots of grand openings. And the organisms, I promise you, have all of their priorities in order.
2:20 - I have this neighbor that keeps me in touch with this, because he's living, usually on his back, looking up at those grasses. And one time he came up to me -- he was about seven or eight years old -- he came up to me. And there was a wasp's nest that I had let grow in my yard, right outside my door. And most people knock them down when they're small. But it was fascinating to me, because I was looking at this sort of fine Italian end papers. And he came up to me and he knocked. He would come every day with something to show me. And like, knock like a woodpecker on my door until I opened it up. And he asked me how I had made the house for those wasps, because he had never seen one this big. And I told him, "You know, Cody, the wasps actually made that." And we looked at it together. And I could see why he thought, you know -- it was so beautifully done. It was so architectural. It was so precise.
3:25But it occurred to me, how in his small life had he already believed the myth that if something was that well done, that we must have done it. How did he not know -- it's what we've all forgotten -- that we're not the first ones to build. We're not the first ones to process cellulose. We're not the first ones to make paper. We're not the first ones to try to optimize packing space, or to waterproof, or to try to heat and cool a structure. We're not the first ones to build houses for our young.
4:05 - What's happening now, in this field called biomimicry, is that people are beginning to remember that organisms, other organisms, the rest of the natural world, are doing things very similar to what we need to do. But in fact they are doing them in a way that have allowed them to live gracefully on this planet for billions of years. So these people, biomimics, are nature's apprentices. And they're focusing on function.What I'd like to do is show you a few of the things that they're learning. They have asked themselves,"What if, every time I started to invent something, I asked, 'How would nature solve this?'"
4:51 - And here is what they're learning. This is an amazing picture from a Czech photographer named Jack Hedley. This is a story about an engineer at J.R. West. They're the people who make the bullet train. It was called the bullet train because it was rounded in front, but every time it went into a tunnel it would build up a pressure wave, and then it would create like a sonic boom when it exited. So the engineer's boss said, "Find a way to quiet this train."
5:17 - He happened to be a birder. He went to the equivalent of an Audubon Society meeting. And he studied -- there was a film about king fishers. And he thought to himself, "They go from one density of medium, the air, into another density of medium, water, without a splash. Look at this picture. Without a splash, so they can see the fish. And he thought, "What if we do this?" Quieted the train. Made it go 10 percent faster on 15 percent less electricity.
5:48 - How does nature repel bacteria? We're not the first ones to have to protect ourselves from some bacteria. Turns out that -- this is a Galapagos Shark. It has no bacteria on its surface, no fouling on its surface, no barnacles. And it's not because it goes fast. It actually basks. It's a slow-moving shark. So how does it keep its body free of bacteria build-up? It doesn't do it with a chemical. It does it, it turns out, with the same denticles that you had on Speedo bathing suits, that broke all those records in the Olympics,
6:22 - but it's a particular kind of pattern. And that pattern, the architecture of that pattern on its skin denticleskeep bacteria from being able to land and adhere. There is a company called Sharklet Technologiesthat's now putting this on the surfaces in hospitals to keep bacteria from landing, which is better than dousing it with anti-bacterials or harsh cleansers that many, many organisms are now becoming drug resistant. Hospital-acquired infections are now killing more people every year in the United States than die from AIDS or cancer or car accidents combined -- about 100,000.
7:04 - This is a little critter that's in the Namibian desert. It has no fresh water that it's able to drink, but it drinks water out of fog. It's got bumps on the back of its wing covers. And those bumps act like a magnet for water. They have water-loving tips, and waxy sides. And the fog comes in and it builds up on the tips.And it goes down the sides and goes into the critter's mouth. There is actually a scientist here at Oxfordwho studied this, Andrew Parker. And now kinetic and architectural firms like Grimshaw are starting to look at this as a way of coating buildings so that they gather water from the fog. 10 times better than our fog-catching nets.
7:49 - CO2 as a building block. Organisms don't think of CO2 as a poison. Plants and organisms that make shells, coral, think of it as a building block. There is now a cement manufacturing company starting in the United States called Calera. They've borrowed the recipe from the coral reef, and they're using CO2 as a building block in cement, in concrete. Instead of -- cement usually emits a ton of CO2 for every ton of cement. Now it's reversing that equation, and actually sequestering half a ton of CO2 thanks to the recipe from the coral.
8:25 - None of these are using the organisms. They're really only using the blueprints or the recipes from the organisms. How does nature gather the sun's energy? This is a new kind of solar cell that's based on how a leaf works. It's self-assembling. It can be put down on any substrate whatsoever. It's extremely inexpensive and rechargeable every five years. It's actually a company a company that I'm involved in called OneSun, with Paul Hawken.
8:53 - There are many many ways that nature filters water that takes salt out of water. We take water and push it against a membrane. And then we wonder why the membrane clogs and why it takes so much electricity. Nature does something much more elegant. And it's in every cell. Every red blood cell of your body right now has these hourglass-shaped pores called aquaporins. They actually export water molecules through. It's kind of a forward osmosis. They export water molecules through, and leave solutes on the other side. A company called Aquaporin is starting to make desalination membranes mimicking this technology.
9:35 - Trees and bones are constantly reforming themselves along lines of stress. This algorithm has been put into a software program that's now being used to make bridges lightweight, to make building beams lightweight. Actually G.M. Opel used it to create that skeleton you see, in what's called their bionic car. It lightweighted that skeleton using a minimum amount of material, as an organism must, for the maximum amount of strength.
10:10 - This beetle, unlike this chip bag here, this beetle uses one material, chitin. And it finds many many waysto put many functions into it. It's waterproof. It's strong and resilient. It's breathable. It creates color through structure. Whereas that chip bag has about seven layers to do all of those things. One of our major inventions that we need to be able to do to come even close to what these organisms can do is to find a way to minimize the amount of material, the kind of material we use, and to add design to it. We use five polymers in the natural world to do everything that you see. In our world we use about 350 polymers to make all this.
11:03 - Nature is nano. Nanotechnology, nanoparticles, you hear a lot of worry about this. Loose nanoparticles. What is really interesting to me is that not many people have been asking, "How can we consult nature about how to make nanotechnology safe?" Nature has been doing that for a long time. Embedding nanoparticles in a material for instance, always. In fact, sulfur-reducing bacteria, as part of their synthesis, they will emit, as a byproduct, nanoparticles into the water. But then right after that, they emit a protein that actually gathers and aggregates those nanoparticles so that they fall out of solution.
11:47 - Energy use. Organisms sip energy, because they have to work or barter for every single bit that they get.And one of the largest fields right now, in the world of energy grids, you hear about the smart grid. One of the largest consultants are the social insects. Swarm technology. There is a company called Regen. They are looking at how ants and bees find their food and their flowers in the most effective way as a whole hive. And they're having appliances in your home talk to one another through that algorithm, and determine how to minimize peak power use.
12:33 - There's a group of scientists in Cornell that are making what they call a synthetic tree, because they are saying, "There is no pump at the bottom of a tree." It's capillary action and transpiration pulls water up, a drop at a time, pulling it, releasing it from a leaf and pulling it up through the roots. And they're creating -- you can think of it as a kind of wallpaper. They're thinking about putting it on the insides of buildings to move water up without pumps.
13:06 - Amazon electric eel -- incredibly endangered, some of these species -- create 600 volts of electricity with the chemicals that are in your body. Even more interesting to me is that 600 volts doesn't fry it. You know we use PVC, and we sheath wires with PVC for insulation. These organisms, how are they insulatingagainst their own electric charge? These are some questions that we've yet to ask.
13:35 - Here's a wind turbine manufacturer that went to a whale. Humpback whale has scalloped edges on its flippers. And those scalloped edges play with flow in such a way that is reduces drag by 32 percent.These wind turbines can rotate in incredibly slow windspeeds, as a result.
13:57 - MIT just has a new radio chip that uses far less power than our chips. And it's based on the cochlear of your ear, able to pick up internet, wireless, television signals and radio signals, in the same chip. Finally, on an ecosystem scale.
14:19 - At Biomimicry Guild, which is my consulting company, we work with HOK Architects. We're looking at building whole cities in their planning department. And what we're saying is that, shouldn't our cities do at least as well, in terms of ecosystem services, as the native systems that they replace? So we're creating something called Ecological Performance Standards that hold cities to this higher bar.
14:48 - The question is -- biomimicry is an incredibly powerful way to innovate. The question I would ask is, "What's worth solving?" If you haven't seen this, it's pretty amazing. Dr. Adam Neiman. This is a depiction of all of the water on Earth in relation to the volume of the Earth -- all the ice, all the fresh water, all the sea water -- and all the atmosphere that we can breathe, in relation to the volume of the Earth. And inside those balls life, over 3.8 billion years, has made a lush, livable place for us.
15:26 - And we are in a long, long line of organisms to come to this planet and ask ourselves, "How can we live here gracefully over the long haul?" How can we do what life has learned to do? Which is to create conditions conducive to life. Now in order to do this, the design challenge of our century, I think, we need a way to remind ourselves of those geniuses, and to somehow meet them again.
16:02 - One of the big ideas, one of the big projects I've been honored to work on is a new website. And I would encourage you all to please go to it. It's called AskNature.org. And what we're trying to do, in a TEDesque way, is to organize all biological information by design and engineering function.
16:21 - And we're working with EOL, Encyclopedia of Life, Ed Wilson's TED wish. And he's gathering all biological information on one website. And the scientists who are contributing to EOL are answering a question, "What can we learn from this organism?" And that information will go into AskNature.org. And hopefully, any inventor, anywhere in the world, will be able, in the moment of creation, to type in, "How does nature remove salt from water?" And up will come mangroves, and sea turtles and your own kidneys.
16:57 - And we'll begin to be able to do as Cody does, and actually be in touch with these incredible models,these elders that have been here far, far longer than we have. And hopefully, with their help, we'll learn how to live on this Earth, and on this home that is ours, but not ours alone. Thank you very much.(Applause)
Biomimicry Institute 
The Biomimicry Institute empowers people to create nature-inspired solutions for a healthy planet.
Can We Use Biomimicry To Design Cities? Janine Benyus Says Yes
Yesterday in a sunny corner of London, a select group of UK journalists, myself included, were treated to an enrapturing few hours in the company of biomimicry guru Janine Benyus. The group was brought together by sustainable business pioneers InterfaceFLOR, whose long standing working relationship with Benyus enabled them to arrange this exclusive press lunch at raw food restaurant Saf. It was appropriate that Janine spoke to us in the centre of the bustling metropolis as her latest work in the field of biomimicry is focused on using the discipline to inform the design and function of cities.
Biologist at the Design Table
"After my book came out we expected environmentalists and conservationists to get in touch, but in fact it was big business who called. They wanted a biologist to come and talk about how life works. People woke up to the fact that there is a sustainable world in nature that we hadn't been using as a model"
The City as an Ecosystem
Ecological Performance Standards
Water Self Reliance
The Right Questions Lead to Innovation
By asking the right questions designers can create uniquely demanding briefs which produce innovative solutions. Janine Benyus is a great believer in designers setting their sights as high as possible, "It's very powerful when companies have clear goals to work towards." And as Ray Anderson, the radical CEO at the helm of InterfaceFLOR, said when he first set out his ambition to create a sustainable road map for his company, "You can't tell me that it can't be done."
Janine Benyus hearts TreeHugger
More on Biomimicry:
Related on TreeHugger.com:
BIOMIMICRY CHALLENGE: FOR IBM, SMART DESIGN DRAWS WATER CONSERVATION INSPIRATION FROM ECOSYSTEMS
OUR BIOMIMICRY CHALLENGE WHAT WOULD YOU ASK NATURE? DREW DOZENS OF REAL-WORLD BUSINESS PROBLEMS SUBMITTED BY COMPANIES FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD. WE ASSIGNED THREE CHALLENGES TO THREE FIRMS AND PAIRED THEM EACH WITH A BIOLOGIST. EACH TEAM IS NOW REPORTING THEIR BIO-INSPIRED SOLUTIONS.
You've probably seen ads for IBM's SmarterCity initiative, a program that uses the company's information technology to help municipal governments create healthier, more intelligent urban environments for their residents. Using their ability to collect and analyze data, IBM is able to provide information about elements of daily city life ranging from weather and traffic to water usage and air quality. But what they've done with that data has largely been used to make policy and economic decisions. IBM appealed to our What Would You Ask Nature? biomimicry challenge, asking how they could use nature to understand how these overlays of information could help guide residents toward making better personal decisions for the good of the city. A New York-based team at Smart Design accepted their challenge.
After having a discussion with IBM, and walking through some day-in-the-life exercises that explored issues facing urban dwellers, Smart chose to focus on water conservation. Because of the complexity surrounding its systems, water is often misunderstood, says Tucker Fort, Smart's director of industrial design. "But unlike something like energy, it's a finite resource." Water was also something that residents interacted with everyday, and since IBM's goal was to make cities more responsive and resilient, using a biomimetic approach for encouraging more responsible water usage could have a real impact when implemented across an entire municipal area. Smart zeroed in on urban water consumption to explore how nature could inspire relevant, everyday solutions for city inhabitants to conserve water.
To immerse themselves in a biomimetic mindset, Fort, along with director of interaction design Ted Booth, and their team consisting of Whitney Hopkins, Colin Kelly, Anton Ljunggren, and Stephanie Yung, were introduced to the emerging discipline of biomimicry by their BaDT (biologist at the design table) Mark Dorfman. After a biomimicry primer, the team engaged in a blindfolded exercise where they were encouraged to smell, taste, touch, and listen to nature—anything that would break them of their reliance on vision. This is something Dorfman calls "quieting our cleverness." "If I were to show you a pine cone, you would see it and immediately know what it is, and that might be the end of your curiosity and exploration," says Dorfman. "But if you're blindfolded and handed a pine cone, you'll have to explore its shape, texture, smell, before figuring out what it is." The hope is that this process will open the designer's mind to viewing living things through a functional lens—a way that is particularly relevant to solving design challenges.
Visits to two urban greenways, the High Line and Hudson River Park, near Smart's offices, provided an opportunity to use this sensual awareness while focusing intently on natural solutions. Reframing the challenge as a functional approach, the designers asked themselves questions like "How does nature store water?" and "How does nature collect water?" Through Dorfman's storytelling and by looking at examples on the AskNature.org site, they learned about examples that ranged from the corky tuber, a giant 700-pound water-filled tuber that grows under the ground yet throws out a few tiny shoots on the surface to alert animals about its water levels, to the ways that camels self-regulate water consumption due to availability.
Although the designers were inspired by the natural examples, they quickly found a more actionable solution in the Life's Principles, a chart created by the Biomimicry Guild to illustrate how the earth regulates and conserves resources within its own giant ecosystem. Examining this representation of nature's complex systems, the designers realized that their solution would not come directly from an organism, but from this entire system as a whole: These core principles for life could work as a metaphor for a city, inspiring and informing solutions to make a healthier and smarter environment.
After studying the Life's Principles chart, one truth became apparent: Nature has strict boundaries when it came to resources. Cities don't. Especially when it came to water, organisms had very specific ways for dealing with conservation during times of scarcity. Grass will go dormant during droughts. Birds will conserve food for the good of the group. Animals and plants have a very intrinsic ability to monitor and self-regulate, whereas humans are so far removed from this cycle that they only pay attention when they experience what the designers named a "heart attack moment" where resources have been depleted and it's too late. "Animals regulate based on ambient conditions—they do for themselves but also for the good of the species," says Booth. "So how do you make those signals apparent? How can we bring out those concepts so we're looking at those boundaries and limits?"
But here's where Smart tapped their own knowledge of human behavior: "Peoplehate the word 'boundary,'" says Fort. There's nothing that frustrates people more than strict regulations and limits. The team realized to make their solution appeal to people, they needed to create "soft boundaries of encouragement" for water conservation: Using IBM's data, Smart could design feedback loops on each layer of the city's ecosystem that would create boundaries for individuals, communities, and cities.
Using the chart as their guide, the designers began framing a three-level approach to that would provide tangible and relevant feedback loops in different layers: individual (organism), communal (species), and societal (species to species).
For the individual layer, Smart wanted a non-intrusive, yet tangible way to show residents how much water they were using. They created the Heartbeat Faucet, which provides feedback by pulsing after dispensing every 12-oz. cup of water—approximately 20-30 times a minute for the typical faucet. This metered pulse would allow users to see and feel how much water they are using each time they turn on the faucet, informing everyone in the household about their behavior. The faucet would also give IBM point-of-use metering for real time analytics.
For the communal layer, Smart focused on the concept of "leveraging interdependence," or creating cooperative behavior. For this solution they looked at the idea of a Communal Reservoir, which would encourage groups to work together. In an urban environment, Smart decided, a reservoir would translate to the water used by an entire apartment building: Water usage is typically metered for a whole building but each resident often has no idea how much or little they're contributing to the bill. This program would track your building's water usage during a fixed time period and give a community reward—from municipal tax credits to flowers for the lobby—if you come in below your target. The elevator could then serve as the "town square," with displays that show the building's reservoir level and allow the community to modify behavior on daily basis.
Finally, for the societal layer, Smart needed a way to quickly convey the city's water health to its residents and reconnect cities to the natural resources their inhabitants depend on for survival. "When people used to have to pick up their water they could see the stream or the well, and know to conserve," says Booth. "We have to real connection to that." They created the concept of MicroParks, tiny greenspaces throughout the city located next to fire hydrants retrofitted with solar powered wireless water metering systems. The MicroParks' water feed could be manipulated to reflect the cities future water supply—a lush MicroPark would communicate a healthy water supply and a withering MicroPark would let residents know that conservation is critical. These miniature green spaces can forecast city water supply health and make behavior-changing daily connections with people in a positive way.
Smart was able to use the concepts of an entire ecosystem as a metaphor for a city environment, moving from very micro examples from nature into an application like the Life's Principles that applied nature in a very macro, big-picture way. This resulted in a solution that they felt was more appropriate than the traditional biomimicry approach of inscribing specific organisms' traits upon urban infrastructure and human behaviors. "We felt we lacked the credibility to say we can take the corky tuber and turn it into a reservoir," says Fort of the limited time and experience in biomimicry. "But it was valuable to think about things from a different perspective."
Although Dorfman didn't expect the team to make the Life's Principles the centerpiece of their solution, he thought it made an excellent bridge for designers to work between life's technologies and human behavior. "Most often, I've used Life's Principles to evaluate a potential solution that we've proposed to a client, so it was quite interesting to see the team use Life's Principles as both the inspiration for ideas as well as a tool to evaluate its sustainability," he says. "It was actually quite exciting to see the design team run with it."
The designers will now use the Life's Principles as another tool in their toolkit, much like the way Smart already uses the principles of Universal Design, a process of designing products and environments that are usable by people with a wide range of abilities. It will remind them that nature is often the best role model for elegant solutions. And for this solution, it also helped them to realize a simple truth: That some of the world's largest challenges will be overcome by changing the behavior of each individual within a larger system. "The modern city is just like an ecosystem," says Fort. "It seems so obvious, but if you just go right below the surface, there are all these inspirations and connections that are so meaningful."
More solutions from the What Would You Ask Nature? Biomimicry Challenge
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El acrónimo BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) fue inventado por Gary Kildall en 1975.