## Referencias | References

#### Full references of vocabulary, events, chronicles, evidences and other contents used in KW Projects related to biotechnology and neuroscience.

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### U

Ubicuidad, omnipresencia, o capacidad de estar presente en todas partes simultáneamente. Es una cualidad que generalmente se atribuye a las deidades. En el caso particular de las religiones monoteístas, es una de las perfecciones atribuidas a Dios. Socialmente hablando, la ubicuidad tiene que ver con la afectación a los actores de todos los estamentos sociales. Desde el punto de vista informático, sería como una red social de amplio impacto, como Facebook o Twitter.

 Palabra(s) clave: Vocabulario

### Ubiquitous Visibility in Virtualized Enterprises

Enterprises have been using Cascade® products from Riverbed Technology for many years to discover, monitor and troubleshoot their physical network and application infrastructure. Cascade network performance management (NPM) solution offers a rich set of functionality to understand network and application performance in the context of end-user experience, and to uncover problems in an organization’s physical infrastructure. With enterprises aggressively embracing virtualization, this sea change has brought new visibility gaps in IT infrastructure.

 Palabra(s) clave: Ubiquitous VisibilityVirtualized Enterprises

 Palabra(s) clave: UMD

#### Un paseo por la misteriosa capital de Corea del Norte

Por Frances Cha

(CNNTravel) — ¿Qué podría ser más fascinante e irónico que una guía turística detallada que nunca utilizarás; un álbum del estado más secretista del mundo actual?

A partir de sus múltiples viajes a Corea del Norte, el arquitecto alemán Philip Meuser creó, en dos volúmenes, la Architectural and Cultural Guide Pyongyang (Guía Cultural y Arquitectónica de Pyongyang), publicada en marzo de 2012 por Dom Publishers.

Mostrarlo como es

“No quería criticar a la política o la sociedad al publicar este libro, sino mostrar la ciudad como es”, dijo Meuser en una entrevista con la revista Harper’s Bazaar Corea. “Pero eso naturalmente llevó a que expusiera el régimen dictatorial de la ciudad, la pobreza intelectual y falta de creatividad”.

El primer volumen tiene muchas imágenes de lugares y vistas en Pyongyang como el metro, la plaza de la ciudad, monumentos, áreas residenciales, estadios y hoteles.

El segundo está compuesto del relato crítico en primera persona de Meuser sobre sus viajes y de ensayos de varios colaboradores.

Imágenes valiosas

A diferencia de otros libros acerca de Corea del Norte, las imágenes en el libro no son fotografías de propaganda, sino imágenes tomadas de archivos rusos y estadounidenses. Meuser también recolectó fotografías de viaje de otras personas que habían visitado el país.

“El hecho más importante sobre este libro es que todas las imágenes y contenido no fueron censurados de ninguna forma, y son completamente independientes”, dijo Meuser.

Pero, ¿por qué publicar una guía para un lugar que la mayoría de las personas nunca visitarán?: “Quería que fuera un despertar para las personas en el mundo exterior, y también quería proporcionar material extraño para los artículos noticiosos de viaje sobre Corea del Norte”. (Fue bastante astuto con este punto, a juzgar por el hecho de que este artículo hace exactamente eso).

El atractivo para todo tipo de viajero

La guía está dirigida principalmente a los “viajeros de sillón”, que amarán el fascinante tour por “esa ciudad capital muy extraña y aislada”, como USA TODAY Travel señaló en su reseña.

Pero para un número cada vez mayor de viajeros, Corea del Norte tiene un atractivo que no igualan otros destinos.

“Una de las principales razones por las que viajo es para ver estilos de vida diferentes a los míos, y Corea del Norte es lo más diferente posible, a pesar de que también son coreanos”, dijo en 2012 Soon Ho Lee, un habitante de Hong Kong de 31 años.

“Quiero visitar el país pronto principalmente porque hay una visión limitada de cuánto durara el régimen norcoreano en su formato actual. Dentro de 20 años o menos veremos cambios dramáticos, si no es que la extinción completa de Corea del Norte como la conocemos hoy. Me gustaría conocerla; o al menos ver una versión esterilizada de eso, antes de que todo cambie”, dijo Lee.

Nota del editor: Visita CNNTravel para conocer más historias sobre Asia y el mundo.

 Palabra(s) clave: Corea del Norte

#### Unificación de Italia [64]

La Unificación de Italia fue el proceso histórico que a lo largo del siglo XIX llevó a la unión de los diversos estados en que estaba dividida.

 Palabra(s) clave: Historia

### Microsoft, Google vie to be masters of the universal OS | One universal OS to rule them all

#### Developers and IT admins have to manage and build apps for a multitude of different operating systems and device types. Windows 10 and Google's universal OS could change that.

Universal operating systems could make it easier to develop and manage enterprise applications across multiple form factors.

A universal OS that can run on both mobile devices and PCs gives IT fewer operating systems to manage and gives developers fewer operating systems to build apps for. Windows 10 is the only major universal OS on the market, but Google is expected to release its own this year, according to reports. Additionally, Apple has made macOS more iOS-like in recent versions.

"This trend of universal OSes is coming," said Eric Klein, director of mobile software at VDC Research in Natick, Mass. "This is the way the market will move eventually because it's the most logical way from an IT management perspective."

#### Consistency is king

The premise of Google's universal OS, Andromeda, is to combine Android and Chrome to provide a consistent experience across Google-powered mobile devices and PCs. Developers today have to build one version of an app for Android on mobile devices and another version for Chrome OS or the web on desktops. A universal OS will "clearly help the future of application development," said Mehran Basiratmand, CTO of Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, Fla.

"The single most useful feature is the availability of apps on multiple [form factors]," Basiratmand said. "This will be an important strategy for Google, given the disconnect between Chrome and Android."

With a universal OS, developers don't have to customize an app to work on different device types, said James Safonov, head of IT and information security at City Harvest, a nonprofit in New York.

#### The single most useful feature is the availability of apps on multiple [form factors]".

Mehran Basiratmand | CTO, Florida Atlantic University

"It makes for a more consistent experience for the user because you won't have to worry about who has what version of an app for what OS," he said.

What Microsoft, Google and third-party developers need to keep in mind when making apps for any universal OS is that they need to appear native to all form factors they'll run on, Klein said. A mobile app can't look like it's stretched out on a PC, and a PC application can't look condensed, he said.

Universal operating systems also help IT administrators have a more consistent management experience because they don't have to control and secure one OS on PCs and another on mobile devices.

"People do a lot with their smartphones nowadays, and from an IT perspective, you are always asked to support those devices," said Douglas Grosfield, president and CEO of Five Nines IT Solutions, an IT consultancy in Kitchener, Ont.

#### Inside the unified OS market

Microsoft and Google each have their own distinct advantages. Windows dominates the PC market in the United States with 74.1% market share, compared to 3.4% for Chrome OS, according to StatCounter. Chrome has found its niche in certain verticals, however, such as education. In 2016, 58% of laptops and tablets sold to K-12 schools ran Chrome, compared to 22% for Windows, according to Futuresource Consulting

But Windows lags far behind on mobile devices -- particularly smartphones, which have just 0.3% market share, according to Gartner. Android, on the other hand, is the most widely used mobile operating system in the world and has the largest app ecosystem. Its smartphone market share is 81.7%.

Having a universal OS helps each vendor spread into the side of the market where it's weakest, but Microsoft's business applications should set Windows 10 apart from Andromeda, Klein said.

"Microsoft has the advantage here because they have the Office franchise," Klein said. "To its credit, [Google's] G Suite is great, but it's still not Office."

#### Next Steps

La Universidad de la Singularidad (SU) es una institución académica de Silicon Valley, cuya finalidad es “reunir, educar e inspirar a un grupo de líderes para que se esfuercen por comprender y facilitar el desarrollo exponencial de las tecnologías para resolver los grandes desafíos de la humanidad”. Su nombre hace referencia a la llamada singularidad tecnológica. Se ubica en el Centro de Investigación Ames de la NASA en Mountain View, California y está dirigida por Ray Kurzweil. De forma similar a la International Space University, la SU no está prevista para complementar las universidades tradicionales. Un cupo para los grupos cuesta 25.000 dólares, por nueve semanas. La escuela está patrocinada por Google y la NASA. En palabras de su director, Ray Kurzweil: “En cuanto una rama del conocimiento se convierte en una ciencia de la información, como ha ocurrido con la medicina tras la secuencia del genoma, se produce un avance exponencial (...) Eso está empezando a pasar con otros campos como la energía. En 20 años, viviremos en un mundo muy distinto; tenemos que llegar preparados a la singularidad”. Peter Diamandis ha afirmado que el éxito académico es más probable cuando los estudiantes logran mirar más allá de su propio campo y empiezan a colaborar, estudiar y comprender el trabajo de los demás: “El mayor avance siempre se produce en los límites entre las disciplinas”. Para el co-fundador de la SU, Bob Richards, “La educación universitaria tradicional tiende a empujar la gente a través de embudos estrechos» por lo que “queremos establecer un trabajo en un lienzo mucho más amplio, adoptar un enfoque multidisciplinario”.

Sitio web: http://singularityu.org/.

Singularity Hub: http://singularityhub.com.

### Universities Should Rethink Academic Ideals—Joining Industry Supercharges Research and Tech

The University of Virginia’s provost, Tom Katsouleas, once told me that less than one percent, by his estimates, of basic research is commercialized and that there may be as few as one near-term commercialization for every $10 million invested in fundamental research. This is an awful waste, especially when America is undergoing a reinvention in which entire industries are being wiped out and new ones are being created. A broad range of technologies is now advancing at exponential rates and converging, impacting entire industries. When computing, telecommunications, and consumer electronics converge, for example, we get smartphones, smart TVs, and augmented-reality systems. Computing, medicine, and sensors join to produce wearable medical devices such as the Apple Watch — which will transform health care—and Apple Research Kit, which will revolutionize clinical trials. Uber has already disrupted the transportation industry with its GPS-based cellphone apps; Netflix has made mail-order DVD rentals obsolete with its use of storage and networks; and WhatsApp has decimated the SMS revenues of telecom providers with its mobile-data technologies. Corporate executives have no idea what to do to survive this tsunami of technology convergence; even the innovation models that they were trained on, such as Clayton Christensen’s The Innovator’s Dilemma, have become defunct. The competition no longer comes from within an industry; it comes from elsewhere, and not having domain experts in fields such as synthetic biology, nanotechnology and robotics, most companies have no idea how to respond to these new threats. Universities, though, do have the experts. As a result of decades of government investment in basic research — in fields such as computing, medicine, sensors, artificial intelligence, digital manufacturing, robotics, nanomaterials, and synthetic biology — they have an abundance of talent and intellectual property. This is a goldmine for industry. Businesses that are under siege or are trying to expand into new markets usually look to buy start-ups or form partnerships with research universities. And some simply take what they need. What better place is there to acquire intellectual property and talent than the universities, after all? Uber wanted to urgently build self-driving cars, so it lured away more than 40 researchers from Carnegie Mellon University in January this year. Being nice or ethical didn’t matter to Uber; it took what it wanted and then came back to the university with a relatively small consolation prize:$5.5M for a robotics faculty chair and three fellowships.  Apple was also found guilty of incorporating unlicensed microchip technology from University of Wisconsin–Madison into its iPhones and iPads—and was ordered to pay more than $234 million in damages. We will see much more of this in the next few years. If universities don’t cooperate, businesses will take whatever they can get — because they are desperate. In order to keep its researchers, academia will need to put aside its historical aversion to working with industry. Universities are better off forming industry partnerships to jointly develop technology, as Stanford and MIT did in accepting$50 million from Toyota for research in AI and autonomous-driving technology. Several months after being raided by Uber, Carnegie Mellon University also agreed to partner with Google to turn its campus into a living laboratory for Internet-connected sensors and gadgets. Companies such as Toyota have been blindsided by technologies emerging from other industries; visionaries such as Google have realized that they can’t do everything on their own. So this is a win–win strategy.

A huge opportunity exists to teach businesses about emerging technologies and have them fund research-commercialization efforts — if universities seriously rethink their traditional ideals of academic freedom and the sanctity of the industry–academia division. Such partnerships can make up for the declining government funding of academic research. And it doesn’t have to be a Faustian bargain. Both partners can benefit if the partnerships are structured in a meaningful way, as the partnership between Google and Carnegie Mellon is.  After all, Google didn’t hire away university researchers; it funded research and testing on campus.

Stanford University figured this out long ago. (Disclosure: I am a fellow at Stanford’s Rock Center for Corporate Governance.) Its faculty members are encouraged to work closely with industry, and these collaborations have led to innovation on a grand scale in Silicon Valley, with the formation of companies such as Google, Hewlett–Packard, and Cisco Systems.  This, in turn, has led to an endowment of more than \$20 billion through the donations that its billionaire alumni have given to it.

#### UNIX [51]

UNIX  es un sistema operativo portable, multitarea y multiusuario. Fue desarrollado en 1969 por un grupo de empleados de los laboratorios Bell de AT&T, entre los que figuraban Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie y Douglas McIlroy.

 Palabra(s) clave: TICS

### UNLOCKING BIG DATA: LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE GOD PARTICLE

Written By: Steven Kotler

It’s a puzzle wrapped in an enigma wrapped in a symphony. It’s the Higgs boson, the so-called God particle, the greatest physics find of the 21st century, turned into music.

Chamber music, to be exact.

Admittedly—and especially for fans of Pythagoras—this conversion is a little mind-blowing. But once you get beyond the cosmic significance, what’s equally interesting is that the resulting symphony—aptly titled “LHC Chamber Music “(with LHC being short for Large Hadron Collider, the particle accelerator that helped us find the Higgs)—gives us a window into the future of data visualization and creative innovation.

But first, the music.

To commemorate the 60th anniversary of CERN—the Swiss institute where the LHC is housed—scientists converted Higgs measurement data into two pieces of music—

and a full chamber orchestra symphony. The conversion, known as a “sonification,” involves assigning notes to numbers, with the numbers representing “particle collision events per unit of mass.”

An example of simulated data modelled for the CMS particle detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Here, following a collision of two protons, a is produced which decays into two jets of hadrons and two electrons. The lines represent the possible paths of particles produced by the proton-proton collision in the detector while the energy these particles deposit is shown in blue.

In other words, every time the calculations spit out the number 25, that bit of data is converted to a middle C. Then 26 becomes D and 27 F and so on.

This whole process works—meaning it produces something that sounds like music—because “harmonies in natural phenomena,” as the LHC Open Symphony blog recently pointed out, “are related to harmonies in music.”

At a macroscopic level, the purpose of the sonification was to give non-science types an intuitive sense of the vast complexity of the Higgs boson and, as physicist and the music’s composer Domenico Vicianza said: [to] be a metaphor for scientific collaboration; to demonstrate the vast and incredible effort these projects represent—often between hundreds of people across many different continents.”

In other words, the Higgs sonification is also a data visualization technique (in this case, data acoustification), meaning it gives us a different way to interact with huge amounts of information, a different way to try and detect novel patterns.

Why is this a big deal? Big data is the deal. As we all know, the modern world is awash in data. And while we’re starting to get better at utilizing this information, there’s still a very long way to go.

The problem is not pattern recognition. Turns out, we humans are actually great at pattern recognition (which is why, for example, projects like Foldit are so successful). Our trouble starts with holding giant data sets in our heads—which is not an ability we’re all that good at (which is why computers are better at playing chess than humans—better access to giant data sets allows for brute force solutions).

Put differently, right now, the biggest hurdle to big data is that there is no user-friendly interface for big data. No way in for the common person.

Think about the ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet. Made operational in 1975, ARPANET was mostly text-based, complicated to navigate, and used mainly by scientists. All of this changed in 1993, when Marc Andreessen coauthored Mosaic MOS -1.3%—both the very first web browser and the Internet’s first user-friendly user interface. Mosaic unlocked the Internet. By adding in graphics and replacing Unix with Windows—the operating system that was then running nearly 80 percent of the computers in the world—Andreessen mainstreamed a technology developed for scientists, engineers, and the military. As a result, a worldwide grand total of twenty-six websites in early 1993 mushroomed into more than 10,000 sites by August 1995, then exploded into several million by the end of 1998.

Today, no similar interface exists for big data. Ask a data scientist what the best way to take advantage of the big data revolution is and the most frequent answer is “hire a data scientist.” (this is from personal experience, as I’ve been asking this question for over a year now while researching my next book).

If we all have to become data scientists to take advantage of big data, well, that strikes me as a fairly inefficient way forward.

But sonification is one solution to how to represent big data sets in a way humans can comprehend. It’s a kind of user-friendly interface. As a result, one of the possibilities raised by the release of the Higgs symphony is that some listener might detect a novel pattern in the music, something the physicists involved have not noticed, something in the melody of the music that hints at deeper structure in the universe. Given the strength of the human pattern recognition system, this is not an impossibility.

To come at this from a different angle, I know of a number of different teams working to find novel ways to represent the stock market. One team is trying to find ways to represent the market as natural terrain like snow covered mountains. Why? Instead of turning on the computer to check how your stocks are performing, you could instead don virtual reality goggles and ski the stock market.

The idea being that bringing multiple sensory streams to the process of processing stock market data might a) help us assimilate the data more quickly b) potentially unlock hidden patterns in the data.

And this is nowhere as weird as it sounds. Our subconscious is capable of astounding pattern detection. But the visual perception system is only one of a myriad of possible inputs to an information processing system. Consider that fifty percent of your nerve endings are in your hands, feet and face. Each of those nerve endings represents data processing power. Right now, we’re only using visual information (numbers read off a screen) to analyze the stock market, but engaging more senses means unlocking more processing power means—quite possibly—better analysis.

And better data analysis leads, obviously, to better innovation.

[Image credit: Wikipediafractal image courtesy of Shutterstock]

This entry was posted in Singularity and taggedarpanetbig dataCERNGod particleHiggs boson,Large Hadron Colliderpattern recognition.

 Palabra(s) clave: UNLOCKINGBIG DATALESSONS LEARNEDGOD PARTICLE

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