Referencias | References

Referencias completas de vocabulario, eventos, crónicas, evidencias y otros contenidos utilizados en los proyectos relacionados con biotecnología y neurociencia de la KW Foundation.

Full references of vocabulary, events, chronicles, evidences and other contents used in KW Projects related to biotechnology and neuroscience.

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Universidad de la Singularidad [270]

de System Administrator - lunes, 13 de enero de 2014, 19:28


La Universidad de la Singularidad (SU) es una institución académica de Silicon Valley, cuya finalidad es “reunir, educar e inspirar a un grupo de líderes para que se esfuercen por comprender y facilitar el desarrollo exponencial de las tecnologías para resolver los grandes desafíos de la humanidad”. Su nombre hace referencia a la llamada singularidad tecnológica. Se ubica en el Centro de Investigación Ames de la NASA en Mountain View, California y está dirigida por Ray Kurzweil. De forma similar a la International Space University, la SU no está prevista para complementar las universidades tradicionales. Un cupo para los grupos cuesta 25.000 dólares, por nueve semanas. La escuela está patrocinada por Google y la NASA. En palabras de su director, Ray Kurzweil: “En cuanto una rama del conocimiento se convierte en una ciencia de la información, como ha ocurrido con la medicina tras la secuencia del genoma, se produce un avance exponencial (...) Eso está empezando a pasar con otros campos como la energía. En 20 años, viviremos en un mundo muy distinto; tenemos que llegar preparados a la singularidad”. Peter Diamandis ha afirmado que el éxito académico es más probable cuando los estudiantes logran mirar más allá de su propio campo y empiezan a colaborar, estudiar y comprender el trabajo de los demás: “El mayor avance siempre se produce en los límites entre las disciplinas”. Para el co-fundador de la SU, Bob Richards, “La educación universitaria tradicional tiende a empujar la gente a través de embudos estrechos» por lo que “queremos establecer un trabajo en un lienzo mucho más amplio, adoptar un enfoque multidisciplinario”.

Sitio web:

Singularity Hub:


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Universities Should Rethink Academic Ideals—Joining Industry Supercharges Research and Tech [1538]

de System Administrator - jueves, 29 de octubre de 2015, 18:44

Universities Should Rethink Academic Ideals—Joining Industry Supercharges Research and Tech

By Vivek Wadhwa

The University of Virginia’s provost, Tom Katsouleas, once told me that less than one percent, by his estimates, of basic research is commercialized and that there may be as few as one near-term commercialization for every $10 million invested in fundamental research.  This is an awful waste, especially when America is undergoing a reinvention in which entire industries are being wiped out and new ones are being created.

A broad range of technologies is now advancing at exponential rates and converging, impacting entire industries.  When computing, telecommunications, and consumer electronics converge, for example, we get smartphones, smart TVs, and augmented-reality systems. Computing, medicine, and sensors join to produce wearable medical devices such as the Apple Watch — which will transform health care—and Apple Research Kit, which will revolutionize clinical trials. Uber has already disrupted the transportation industry with its GPS-based cellphone apps; Netflix has made mail-order DVD rentals obsolete with its use of storage and networks; and WhatsApp has decimated the SMS revenues of telecom providers with its mobile-data technologies.

Corporate executives have no idea what to do to survive this tsunami of technology convergence; even the innovation models that they were trained on, such as Clayton Christensen’s The Innovator’s Dilemma, have become defunct. The competition no longer comes from within an industry; it comes from elsewhere, and not having domain experts in fields such as synthetic biology, nanotechnology and robotics, most companies have no idea how to respond to these new threats.

Universities, though, do have the experts. As a result of decades of government investment in basic research — in fields such as computing, medicine, sensors, artificial intelligence, digital manufacturing, robotics, nanomaterials, and synthetic biology — they have an abundance of talent and intellectual property. This is a goldmine for industry. Businesses that are under siege or are trying to expand into new markets usually look to buy start-ups or form partnerships with research universities. And some simply take what they need. What better place is there to acquire intellectual property and talent than the universities, after all?

Uber wanted to urgently build self-driving cars, so it lured away more than 40 researchers from Carnegie Mellon University in January this year.  Being nice or ethical didn’t matter to Uber; it took what it wanted and then came back to the university with a relatively small consolation prize: $5.5M for a robotics faculty chair and three fellowships.  Apple was also found guilty of incorporating unlicensed microchip technology from University of Wisconsin–Madison into its iPhones and iPads—and was ordered to pay more than $234 million in damages. We will see much more of this in the next few years. If universities don’t cooperate, businesses will take whatever they can get — because they are desperate. In order to keep its researchers, academia will need to put aside its historical aversion to working with industry.

Universities are better off forming industry partnerships to jointly develop technology, as Stanford and MIT did in accepting $50 million from Toyota for research in AI and autonomous-driving technology. Several months after being raided by Uber, Carnegie Mellon University also agreed to partner with Google to turn its campus into a living laboratory for Internet-connected sensors and gadgets. Companies such as Toyota have been blindsided by technologies emerging from other industries; visionaries such as Google have realized that they can’t do everything on their own. So this is a win–win strategy.

A huge opportunity exists to teach businesses about emerging technologies and have them fund research-commercialization efforts — if universities seriously rethink their traditional ideals of academic freedom and the sanctity of the industry–academia division. Such partnerships can make up for the declining government funding of academic research. And it doesn’t have to be a Faustian bargain. Both partners can benefit if the partnerships are structured in a meaningful way, as the partnership between Google and Carnegie Mellon is.  After all, Google didn’t hire away university researchers; it funded research and testing on campus.

Stanford University figured this out long ago. (Disclosure: I am a fellow at Stanford’s Rock Center for Corporate Governance.) Its faculty members are encouraged to work closely with industry, and these collaborations have led to innovation on a grand scale in Silicon Valley, with the formation of companies such as Google, Hewlett–Packard, and Cisco Systems.  This, in turn, has led to an endowment of more than $20 billion through the donations that its billionaire alumni have given to it.


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UNIX [51]

de System Administrator - jueves, 2 de enero de 2014, 20:44

UNIX  es un sistema operativo portable, multitarea y multiusuario. Fue desarrollado en 1969 por un grupo de empleados de los laboratorios Bell de AT&T, entre los que figuraban Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie y Douglas McIlroy.


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de System Administrator - jueves, 9 de octubre de 2014, 12:55


Written By: Steven Kotler

It’s a puzzle wrapped in an enigma wrapped in a symphony. It’s the Higgs boson, the so-called God particle, the greatest physics find of the 21st century, turned into music.

Chamber music, to be exact.

Admittedly—and especially for fans of Pythagoras—this conversion is a little mind-blowing. But once you get beyond the cosmic significance, what’s equally interesting is that the resulting symphony—aptly titled “LHC Chamber Music “(with LHC being short for Large Hadron Collider, the particle accelerator that helped us find the Higgs)—gives us a window into the future of data visualization and creative innovation.

But first, the music.

To commemorate the 60th anniversary of CERN—the Swiss institute where the LHC is housed—scientists converted Higgs measurement data into two pieces of music—

 and a full chamber orchestra symphony. The conversion, known as a “sonification,” involves assigning notes to numbers, with the numbers representing “particle collision events per unit of mass.”


An example of simulated data modelled for the CMS particle detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Here, following a collision of two protons, a is produced which decays into two jets of hadrons and two electrons. The lines represent the possible paths of particles produced by the proton-proton collision in the detector while the energy these particles deposit is shown in blue.

In other words, every time the calculations spit out the number 25, that bit of data is converted to a middle C. Then 26 becomes D and 27 F and so on.

This whole process works—meaning it produces something that sounds like music—because “harmonies in natural phenomena,” as the LHC Open Symphony blog recently pointed out, “are related to harmonies in music.”

At a macroscopic level, the purpose of the sonification was to give non-science types an intuitive sense of the vast complexity of the Higgs boson and, as physicist and the music’s composer Domenico Vicianza said: [to] be a metaphor for scientific collaboration; to demonstrate the vast and incredible effort these projects represent—often between hundreds of people across many different continents.”

In other words, the Higgs sonification is also a data visualization technique (in this case, data acoustification), meaning it gives us a different way to interact with huge amounts of information, a different way to try and detect novel patterns.

Why is this a big deal? Big data is the deal. As we all know, the modern world is awash in data. And while we’re starting to get better at utilizing this information, there’s still a very long way to go.

The problem is not pattern recognition. Turns out, we humans are actually great at pattern recognition (which is why, for example, projects like Foldit are so successful). Our trouble starts with holding giant data sets in our heads—which is not an ability we’re all that good at (which is why computers are better at playing chess than humans—better access to giant data sets allows for brute force solutions).

Put differently, right now, the biggest hurdle to big data is that there is no user-friendly interface for big data. No way in for the common person.

Think about the ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet. Made operational in 1975, ARPANET was mostly text-based, complicated to navigate, and used mainly by scientists. All of this changed in 1993, when Marc Andreessen coauthored Mosaic MOS -1.3%—both the very first web browser and the Internet’s first user-friendly user interface. Mosaic unlocked the Internet. By adding in graphics and replacing Unix with Windows—the operating system that was then running nearly 80 percent of the computers in the world—Andreessen mainstreamed a technology developed for scientists, engineers, and the military. As a result, a worldwide grand total of twenty-six websites in early 1993 mushroomed into more than 10,000 sites by August 1995, then exploded into several million by the end of 1998.

Today, no similar interface exists for big data. Ask a data scientist what the best way to take advantage of the big data revolution is and the most frequent answer is “hire a data scientist.” (this is from personal experience, as I’ve been asking this question for over a year now while researching my next book).

If we all have to become data scientists to take advantage of big data, well, that strikes me as a fairly inefficient way forward.

But sonification is one solution to how to represent big data sets in a way humans can comprehend. It’s a kind of user-friendly interface. As a result, one of the possibilities raised by the release of the Higgs symphony is that some listener might detect a novel pattern in the music, something the physicists involved have not noticed, something in the melody of the music that hints at deeper structure in the universe. Given the strength of the human pattern recognition system, this is not an impossibility.

To come at this from a different angle, I know of a number of different teams working to find novel ways to represent the stock market. One team is trying to find ways to represent the market as natural terrain like snow covered mountains. Why? Instead of turning on the computer to check how your stocks are performing, you could instead don virtual reality goggles and ski the stock market.

The idea being that bringing multiple sensory streams to the process of processing stock market data might a) help us assimilate the data more quickly b) potentially unlock hidden patterns in the data.

And this is nowhere as weird as it sounds. Our subconscious is capable of astounding pattern detection. But the visual perception system is only one of a myriad of possible inputs to an information processing system. Consider that fifty percent of your nerve endings are in your hands, feet and face. Each of those nerve endings represents data processing power. Right now, we’re only using visual information (numbers read off a screen) to analyze the stock market, but engaging more senses means unlocking more processing power means—quite possibly—better analysis.

And better data analysis leads, obviously, to better innovation.

[Image credit: Wikipediafractal image courtesy of Shutterstock]

This entry was posted in Singularity and taggedarpanetbig dataCERNGod particleHiggs boson,Large Hadron Colliderpattern recognition.


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Uróboros [1093]

de System Administrator - domingo, 15 de febrero de 2015, 13:22


El uróboros (también ouroboros o uroboros) (del griego «ουροβóρος», "uróvoro", a su vez de oyrá, "cola", y borá, "alimento") es un símbolo que muestra a un animal serpentiforme que engulle su propia cola y que conforma, con su cuerpo, una forma circular. El uróboros simboliza el ciclo eterno de las cosas, también el esfuerzo eterno, la lucha eterna o bien el esfuerzo inútil, ya que el ciclo vuelve a comenzar a pesar de las acciones para impedirlo.

Uróboros o uroboros. En la iconografía alquímica el color verde se asocia con el principio mientras que el rojo simboliza la consumación del objetivo del Magnum Opus (la Gran Obra).

Xilografía de un uróboros de Lucas Jennis.

El uróboros es un concepto empleado en diversas culturas a lo largo de al menos los últimos 3000 años. Engloba varios conceptos similares y otros que no están relacionados y han sido asimilados recientemente por el cine y la televisión. Generalmente un dragón representado con su cola en la boca, devorándose a sí mismo. Representa la naturaleza cíclica de las cosas, el eterno retorno y otros conceptos percibidos como ciclos que comienzan de nuevo en cuanto concluyen (véase el mito de Sísifo). En un sentido más general simboliza el tiempo y la continuidad de la vida. Se usa como representación del renacimiento de las cosas que nunca desaparecen, solo cambian eternamente.

  • En un principio su uso más antiguo estaba en la emblemática serpiente del Antiguo Egipto y la Antigua Grecia. Los uróboros se remontan a los jeroglíficos hallados en la cámara del sarcófago de la pirámide de Unis, en el 2300 a. C. El símbolo tradicional consiste en un dragón o una serpiente que se muerde la cola y crea un círculo sin fin.
  • Igualmente se puede encontrar un mito similar en la mitología nórdica. En esta mitología, la serpiente Jormungand llegó a crecer tanto que pudo rodear el mundo y apresarse su propia cola con los dientes. Este mito fue divulgado más ampliamente por la literatura de entre guerras del siglo XX. El deseo por la consecución del saber oculto, llegar a encarar las fuerzas elementales de la naturaleza, temibles y monstruosas, pero que finalmente conducen hacia la debilidad y la culpa.
  • El uróboros representa la personificación de fenómenos naturales como el sol, las olas del mar, etc., que suben hasta cierta altura y caen luego bruscamente, para volver a empezar. Esto se relaciona con el mito solar de Sísifo y Helio, el disco del sol que sale cada mañana y después se hunde bajo el horizonte. Sísifo fue obligado a empujar una piedra enorme cuesta arriba por una ladera empinada, pero antes que alcanzase la cima de la colina, la piedra rodaba de nuevo hacia abajo, y Sísifo tenía que empezar nuevamente desde el principio.




Personificación de la Eternidad, sosteniendo el UróborosCariátide en el ábside de la Catedral de Milán (1611).

El concepto de eternidad (del latín aeternitas), relacionado con el de inmortalidad, se refiere, popularmente, unas veces a una duración infinita y sin límites, y otras designa una existencia sin tiempo o fuera del tiempo. Sin embargo, los conceptos de "eternidad", "inmortalidad" e "infinitud", al ahondarse más específicamente en su estudio particular, no poseen, de hecho, los mismos significados.

Existen diversas argumentaciones acerca del tópico de la eternidad, a través de las cuales, quienes las sustentan, empezando por el filósofo griego Aristóteles, tratan de demostrar que la materia, el movimiento y el tiempo deben haber existido y existirán eternamente.


Vulture Culture


Vulture Culture es el octavo álbum de The Alan Parsons Project, lanzado en 1985 por Arista Records. Siguiendo con el sello estilístico propio de la banda, el disco incluye una mezcla de canciones pop rock accesibles, contrastadas con otras de corte más progresivo y climático, aunque la música de Parsons fue virando hacia el sonido FM a lo largo de los 80s, no obstante la calidad musical se mantuvo intacta. El single principal "Let's Talk About Me" alcanzó el "Top 40" alemán, y el álbum tuvo muy buena acogida en Europa continental, aunque la recepción en los EE.UU. fue tibia, sin embargo aún llegó a ser certificado "oro".

Vulture Culture (la cultura del buitre) estuvo originalmente pensado para ser el disco dos en un álbum doble, del cual Ammonia Avenue iba a ser el disco uno, finalmente ambos fueron editados por separado. La portada muestra una suerte de pulsera metálica representando un uróboros devorando su propia cola, alegoría que -entre otros conceptos- simbolizaba el devenir cíclico de las cosas, aunque en este caso el reptil tiene cabeza de buitre.


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Urreta FC [157]

de System Administrator - jueves, 9 de enero de 2014, 22:26

 Urreta FC

Sitio web del Club Urreta de Baby Fútbol:

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Uruguay Natural [432]

de System Administrator - sábado, 18 de enero de 2014, 15:56
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Uruguay [342]

de System Administrator - martes, 7 de enero de 2014, 15:42


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Uruguay: The Economist’s country of the year [343]

de System Administrator - martes, 7 de enero de 2014, 15:56

The Economist’s country of the year (2013)


Earth’s got talent

Resilient Ireland, booming South Sudan, tumultuous Turkey: our country of the year is…

HUMAN life isn’t all bad, but it sometimes feels that way. Good news is no news: the headlines mostly tell of strife and bail-outs, failure and folly.

Yet, like every year, 2013 has witnessed glory as well as calamity. When the time comes for year-end accountings, both the accomplishments and the cock-ups tend to be judged the offspring of lone egomaniacs or saints, rather than the joint efforts that characterise most human endeavour. To redress the balance from the individual to the collective, and from gloom to cheer, The Economist has decided, for the first time, to nominate a country of the year.

But how to choose it? Readers might expect our materialistic outlook to point us to simple measures of economic performance, but they can be misleading. Focusing on GDP growth would lead us to opt for South Sudan, which will probably notch up a stonking 30% increase in 2013—more the consequence of a 55% drop the previous year, caused by the closure of its only oil pipeline as a result of its divorce from Sudan, than a reason for optimism about a troubled land. Or we might choose a nation that has endured economic trials and lived to tell the tale. Ireland has come through its bail-out and cuts with exemplary fortitude and calm; Estonia has the lowest level of debt in the European Union. But we worry that this econometric method would confirm the worst caricatures of us as flint-hearted number-crunchers; and not every triumph shows up in a country’s balance of payments.

Another problem is whether to evaluate governments or their people. In some cases their merits are inversely proportional: consider Ukraine, with its thuggish president, Viktor Yanukovych, and its plucky citizens, freezing for democracy in the streets of Kiev, even though nine years ago they went to the trouble of having a revolution to keep the same man out of office. Or remember Turkey, where tens of thousands protested against the creeping autocracy and Islamism of Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the prime minister-cum-sultan. Alas, neither movement has yet been all that successful.

Definitional questions creep in, too. One possible candidate, Somaliland, has kept both piracy and Islamic extremism at bay, yet on most reckonings it is not a country at all, rather a renegade province of Somalia—which has struggled to contain either. As well as countries yet to be, we might celebrate one that could soon disintegrate: the United Kingdom, which hasn’t fared too badly, all things considered, since coming into being in 1707, but could fracture in 2014 should the Scots be foolhardy enough to vote for secession.

And the winner is

When other publications conduct this sort of exercise, but for individuals, they generally reward impact rather than virtue. Thus they end up nominating the likes of Vladimir Putin, Ayatollah Khomeini or, in 1938, Adolf Hitler. Adapting that realpolitikal rationale, we might choose Bashar Assad’s Syria, from which millions of benighted refugees have now been scattered to freezing camps across the Levant. If we were swayed by influence per head of population, we might plump for the Senkaku (or Diaoyu) islands, the clutch of barren rocks in the East China Sea that have periodically threatened to incite a third world war—though that might imply their independence, leading both China and Japan to invade us. Alternatively, applying the Hippocratic principle to statecraft, we might suggest a country from which no reports of harm or excitement have emanated. Kiribati seems to have had a quiet year.

 Mujica y Aerosmith

But the accomplishments that most deserve commendation, we think, are path-breaking reforms that do not merely improve a single nation but, if emulated, might benefit the world. Gay marriage is one such border-crossing policy, which has increased the global sum of human happiness at no financial cost. Several countries have implemented it in 2013—including Uruguay, which also, uniquely, passed a law to legalise and regulate the production, sale and consumption of cannabis. This is a change so obviously sensible, squeezing out the crooks and allowing the authorities to concentrate on graver crimes, that no other country has made it. If others followed suit, and other narcotics were included, the damage such drugs wreak on the world would be drastically reduced.

Better yet, the man at the top, President José Mujica, is admirably self-effacing. With unusual frankness for a politician, he referred to the new law as an experiment. He lives in a humble cottage, drives himself to work in a Volkswagen Beetle and flies economy class. Modest yet bold, liberal and fun-loving, Uruguay is our country of the year. ¡Felicitaciones!


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Ushuaia [313]

de System Administrator - sábado, 18 de enero de 2014, 21:48


Ushuaia es una ciudad argentina, capital de la Provincia de Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur. Fue fundada el 12 de octubre de 1884 por Augusto Lasserre y se ubica en las costas delcanal Beagle rodeada por la cadena montañosa del Martial, en la bahía de Ushuaia. Además de ser un centro administrativo, es un nodo industrial, portuario y turístico. Es la única ciudad argentina que se encuentra del otro lado de los Andes, vista desde el resto del país.


También es, de acuerdo a la clasificación de los mares de la Organización Hidrográfica Internacional, la única ciudad argentina (y puerto) con costas y aguas pertenecientes al Pacífico, si bien esto no es reconocido abiertamente por el estado argentino, que formalmente considera al canal Beagle un paso bioceánico, pues de otro modo contradiría tratados limítrofes firmados con Chile los cuales se lo impiden.


Ushuaia suele ser llamada con el eslogan de «la ciudad más austral del mundo».


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