Referencias | References
Referencias completas de vocabulario, eventos, crónicas, evidencias y otros contenidos utilizados en los proyectos relacionados con biotecnología y neurociencia de la KW Foundation.
Full references of vocabulary, events, chronicles, evidences and other contents used in KW Projects related to biotechnology and neuroscience.
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El High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program o HAARP es un programa de estudio ionosférico, financiado por la Fuerza Aérea y la Marina de los Estados Unidos, la Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) y la Universidad de Alaska. Su objetivo es estudiar las propiedades de la ionósfera y potenciar los avances tecnológicos que permitan mejorar su capacidad para las radiocomunicaciones y los sistemas de vigilancia (tales como la detección de misiles). El principal dispositivo de la Estación HAARP es el Instrumento de Investigación Ionosférica (IRI), un potente radiotransmisor de alta frecuencia que se emplea para modificar las propiedades en una zona limitada de la ionósfera. Los procesos que ocurren en dicha zona son analizados mediante instrumentos tales como: radares UHF, VHF y de sondeo digital, magnetómetros de saturación y de inducción. La Estación HAARP empezó a funcionar en 1993. Con 180 antenas en una superficie total de alrededor de 35 acres, el IRI actual opera desde el año 2007 y su contratista principal fue BAE Advanced Technologies. Hasta 2008, HAARP había gastado aproximadamente 250 millones de dólares. El proyecto ha sido culpado por teóricos de la conspiración de una amplia gama de eventos, incluyendo numerosos desastres naturales. Sin embargo, varios científicos y académicos han comentado que el HAARP es un blanco atractivo para dichos conspiracionistas debido a que, en palabras del investigador informático David Naiditch, "su finalidad parece enigmática para los ignorantes en ciencia".
En la actualidad, la palabra “hacker” se usa de forma corriente para referirse mayormente a los criminales informáticos, debido a su utilización masiva por parte de los medios de comunicación desde la década de 1980.
Hagan lo que digo, no lo que hago 
Actitud típica de la mayoría de los seres humanos: “hagan lo que digo, no lo que hago”.
HAL 9000 
HAL 9000, cuyo nombre es un acrónimo en inglés de Heuristically Programmed Algorithmic Computer, es un personaje ficticio de computadora en la novela “2001: A Space Odyssey” escrita por Arthur C. Clarke en 1968. HAL es la computadora de a bordo encargada de controlar la nave espacial Discovery, cuya Inteligencia artificial finalmente enloquece.
Halcón Milenario 
El Halcón Milenario (en inglés: Millennium Falcon) es el nombre de la nave espacial que aparece en la segunda parte de la saga de películas del universo ficticio de Star Wars. Originalmente usada para el contrabando, se unió a la Alianza Rebelde y cubrió varias misiones tales como la destrucción de las dos versiones de la Estrella de la Muerte, junto a los cazas X-Wing.
Han Solo 
Han Solo es un personaje de ficción y uno de los protagonistas de la trilogía original de Star Wars. Su frase: "Te aseguro que a veces me asombro de mí mismo".
Health Devices Are All Too Hackable—Here’s What You Need to Know 
Health Devices Are All Too Hackable—Here’s What You Need to Know
The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to bring nearly fifty billion new devices online by 2020. This sounds great, until you read that an estimated 70% of IoT devices are hackable.
That cute Google Nest in your kitchen? Your car’s brake system? Your implanted insulin pump? Yeah, they’re all hackable.
Welcome to “the internet of things to be hacked,” as Marc Goodman likes calling it.
Goodman, Singularity University's faculty chair for Policy, Law, and Ethics, gave an eye-opening keynote at the Exponential Medicine conference this week on security and privacy threats in healthcare, and what we can all do about them.
Goodman has a long history in law enforcement, including previously working as an LAPD officer, serving as Futurist in Residence at the FBI, and working in over 70 countries with Interpol, the US Secret Service, and many police departments. Last year Goodman wrote Future Crimes, which became both a Wall Street Journal and New York Times bestseller.
Goodman’s main point and call-to-action: there’s a flip side to the incredible technology breakthroughs that are revolutionizing healthcare and medicine.
Many of the breakthroughs that are rapidly digitizing medicine are also making medical data, devices, and hospitals vulnerable to massive cybercrime and security breaches.
Goodman asked the room, “Who here likes big data and analytics?” Everyone raised their hands. To which he responded, “Criminals love big data and analytics too.”
Today in healthcare, there are a few key security threats that patients, practitioners, and hospitals all need to be aware of so they can take measures to prevent them.
For any time spent working toward bringing more of healthcare online, there must be equal time spent keeping it secure. This is especially true with medical records and patient information, which are both huge targets for hackers and cybercrime in healthcare.
Why do hackers go after medical records?
According to Goodman, a medical record is worth ten times more than a credit card number on the black market. If you think about all of the valuable information contained in an individual medical record—a social security number, full history of doctor visits, prescribed medicine, lab results, health insurance policy number—it makes a lot of sense.
Ransomware, software that encrypts data and holds it hostage until a payment is made, is wreaking havoc on hospitals. In February, the medical records system at LA’s Hollywood Presbyterian Hospital was nearly shut down for 10 days due to a ransomware attack.
In 2015, nearly 113 million health records were leaked. As the volume of medical data increases, the volume of compromised medical records and patient data will likely skyrocket too.
But it isn't just about records. Medical devices are vulnerable too.
In 2012, MIT Technology Review published an article titled Computer Viruses Are “Rampant” on Medical Devices in Hospitals, which detailed malware infections in hospital equipment like X-ray machines and patient monitors. Six years later, with more medical devices being implanted inside of us, this threat should be top of mind to all.
If you’re wondering how to protect yourself or your company, there's hope. We don’t have to be apathetic towards cybercrime or simply wait around hoping not to become victims too.
Goodman reminds us there are actually a lot of steps we can take individually and collectively. For example, if you haven’t updated your software recently, update it. It turns out, 76% of malware that’s two years old still works, so update your software to keep it secure.
How do these “bug bounty programs" work? Companies send their code out to hackers and web developers, who then try to hack it and find potential weak spots and bugs. In return, they receive compensation, and you save yourself from a potential security breach.
Goodman says “95% of all data breaches are due to human error." Training and educating yourself, your family, and employees can be one of the most powerful steps to counteracting cybersecurity attacks.
Healthcare is shifting from reactive to preventative — this should also be the way we prevent cybercrime before it hits.
Want to keep up with coverage from Exponential Medicine? Get the latest insights here.
Image source: Shutterstock
Hackers Really Love to Attack Medical Devices
by Nancy Crotti
Report says “overwhelming majority of medical devices deployed within medical facilities are susceptible in varying degrees.” And there's an important reason why, too.
MEDJACK 2: It sounds like a movie title, but it’s all too real.
A new report on hospital data breaches reveals that hackers are now increasingly targeting medical devices that use legacy operating systems with known vulnerabilities.
The second annual report by TrapX Security, MEDJACK 2 explains how attackers have evolved, disguising sophisticated attacks within old malware wrappers to invade hospital networks, steal sensitive patient data, and sell it on the black market.
The company based last year’s report on three simulated cyberattacks to show how vulnerable hospitals and medical devices were. This year, it reported on three hospital case studies of actual attacks detected between late 2015 and early 2016. The attacks contained numerous backdoors and botnet connections, giving remote access for hackers to launch their attacks, and went undetected for months.
Windows 7 and later versions had eliminated the vulnerabilities that the old malware used by these hackers sought to exploit, so the worm was free to seek out older versions of Windows used by some medical devices, which usually do not have endpoint security systems, the report says. The hackers apparently repackaged and embedded new, highly sophisticated tools and camouflaged them within the old worm.
“Attackers are intentionally moving to old variants of attack vectors to specifically target medical devices knowing they have no additional security protections,” the security company says in its report. “The malware propagated by the attacker(s) was never detected by any endpoint security software.”
The report lists North American hospitals that had cyberattacks 2016. Hacked devices included systems used in radiation oncology, respiratory gating, fluoroscopy, picture archiving and communication, and x-rays.
Hospitals do not install software within the medical devices for technical and liability reasons, the report says.
“Tampering with an FDA-approved device might impact operation in some unknown way,” it adds. “No clinician or healthcare institution administrator wants to take on that risk.”
Healthcare is now the most frequently attacked industry, beating out financial services, retail, and other industries, according to the 2016 Cyber Security Intelligence Index report by IBM. Healthcare organizations are struggling to keep pace with the number and sophistication of the attacks, TrapX added.
The company recommended that healthcare organizations implement strategies that review and remediate existing medical devices, better manage medical device end-of-life, and carefully limit access to medical devices.
In January, FDA issued an updated draft guidance for OEMs developing and building medical devices, recommending that device manufacturers take a number of important steps:
Nancy Crotti is a contributor to Qmed.
HealthDesk significa “escritorio para la salud”. Fue el antecedente del KW Project Serie M.
Helper Robot 
A Helper Robot Reveals the Near Future in This Beautiful Short Film
In Courtney Marsh’s short film ZARI a bullet-shaped helper robot trundles about doing chores. Its smooth white-on-black design is vaguely Apple-inspired; its interactions are Siri plus a few years.
The film’s pace is deliberate and shot from creative angles, but my favorite part is that it's a future firmly rooted in the present. Instead of being populated by robots that are near replicas of humans, ZARI realistically pays homage to technology as it is, in terms of both its capability and our relationship to it.
The robot doesn’t walk on two legs, it rolls on wheels. (Even the top robot at this year’s Darpa Robotics Challenge had wheels.) It can do laundry and put away dishes, but it performs both tasks one item at a time, recalling a growing library of sped up YouTube videos showing robots doing chores. It rolls around and vacuums the floor like a Roomba, only less randomly, perhaps using an artificial neural network like Google's dream algorithm to learn the floor plan and improve with each iteration.
This is the early days of the personal robot revolution—and it’s wonderfully mundane. ZARI shows how quickly we tire of new technologies, disappointed by capabilities that didn’t exist just a few years ago. The robot is invisible, treated like any other labor-saving appliance in the home, a dishwasher on wheels.
And yet, as it tries to interact with the family dog and occasionally glances at itself in the mirror, there’s a glimmer of something more going on. ZARI might be a touch too slow for the Internet—full disclosure—but that’s what allows it to weave together the mundane and the miraculous so effectively.
**PLEASE LISTEN WITH VOLUME UP WITH GOOD HEADPHONES/SPEAKERS**
Synopsis: An outdated and seemingly limited household robot attempts to communicate with the family dog.
Image Credit: Courtney Marsh/ZARI/Vimeo