## Referencias | References

#### Full references of vocabulary, events, chronicles, evidences and other contents used in KW Projects related to biotechnology and neuroscience.

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### N

La nada se define como ausencia e inexistencia de cualquier objeto. Según el contexto, existen varios conceptos de nada. La necesidad de este concepto es un escollo para el realismo ingenuo y el empirismo, porque, a ese respecto, en la realidad no existe equivalente. En el sentido común la palabra "nada" se usa para referirse a cualquier cosa o evento de poca importancia.

Diversos filósofos y teólogos han estudiado el concepto de nada o inexistencia. Muchos de ellos –en particular HegelHeidegger y Sartre– cometieron la falacia de reificación al sostener que la nada es una cosa. El concepto de nada varía ampliamente entre las diversas tradiciones filosóficas y culturas, especialmente la occidental y la oriental. Así, en el budismo, el Shunyata es el estado vacío de la mente.

La raíz etimológica de «nada»: res nata, es contradictoria del significado actual, pues significa cosa nacida. Quizás este -para muchos- insospechado y contundente hecho justifique las tal vez permanentes e irreconciliables concepciones antagónicas, y la reificación no incurra ya en falacia.

En contraste, en la filosofía griega la idea de la nada surgió con los problemas de la negación del ser, de la conservación del ser y de la imposibilidad de afirmar la nada. En particular, Parménides creyó que del «no ser» (la nada) no se puede hablar. Epicuro y Lucrecio aseveraron que la materia no se puede crear de la nada, ni destruir a nada, postulados posteriormente negados por el pensamiento cristiano. En el siglo XX el empirismo lógico sostuvo que todo ocupándose de la nada es un contrasentido, un mal uso sintáctico del lenguaje. De este modo se descalificó toda especulación acerca del problema.

 Palabra(s) clave: Filosofía

### MAGNETICALLY GUIDED NANOPARTICLES TO TARGET AND DESTROY DISEASED CELLS

Written By: Arlington Hewes

Currently, we take the shotgun approach to treatments for diseases like cancer. The body is indiscriminately bombarded with drugs and radiation harmful to diseased and healthy cells alike. While we may not cure cancer right away, researchers are trying to develop new ways to more carefully image and destroy diseased cells.

In a recent journal article, scientists at Rice University and the Methodist Hospital Research Institute said experimental nanoparticles impregnated with iron oxide may improve MRI imaging techniques and even be used to treat diseased tissue.

The researchers made two nanoconstructs, embedding iron oxide particles in silicon mesoporous particles (SiMPs), pictured at the top of the page and above, and discoidal polymeric nanoconstructs (DPNs).

The iron oxide allows researchers to magnetically move the nanoparticles to desired locations and hold them there. Further, when embedded in the larger nanoparticles, the imaging efficacy of iron oxide—already used as an MRI contrast agent—proved to be 10 times better than traditional contrast agents with a lower dose of iron.

Beyond manipulation and imaging, such particles may also be used therapeutically. Once in place, for example, the iron-infused nanoparticles can be heated to destroy target cells. Also, each particle can carry drugs in pores situated throughout its surface. Once guided to a specific area, it can be induced to release a drug—sparing as many healthy cells as possible while destroying diseased tissue.

What happens to the nanoparticles after they’ve served their purpose? According to the researchers, they should fully degrade and exit the body within a few days.

Read more at Science Daily: Nanoscale composites improve MRI: Magnetic particles merged to detect, fight disease

[Image Credit: Dr. Victor Lin group/Iowa State University/Wikimedia Commons (banner and body)]

 Palabra(s) clave: NANOTECHNOLOGYHEALTHCANCER

#### Nanorrobótica [470]

La nanorrobótica es el campo de las tecnologías emergentes que crea máquinas o robots cuyos componentes están o son cercanos a escala nanométrica (10−9 metros).1 2 3 De una forma más específica, la nanorrobótica se refiere a la ingeniería nanotecnológicadel diseño y construcción de nanorrobots, teniendo estos dispositivos un tamaño de alrededor de 0,1 a 10 micrómetros y están construidos con componentes de nanoescala o moleculares.4 5 También han sido usada las denominaciones de nanobotsnanoides,nanitesnanomáquinas o nanomites para describir a estos dispositivos que actualmente se encuentran en investigación y desarrollo.6 7

En su mayoría las nanomáquinas se encuentran en fase de investigación y desarrollo,8 pero se han probado algunas máquinas moleculares y nanomotores primitivos. Un ejemplo de esto es un sensor que tiene un interruptor de aproximadamente 1,5 nanómetros de ancho, capaz de contar moléculas específicas en una muestra química. Las primeras aplicaciones útiles de las nanomáquinas podrían darse en la tecnología médica,9 estos dispositivos podrían ser usados para identificar y destruir células cancerígenas.10 11 Otra aplicación potencial es la detección de químicos tóxicos, y en la medición de sus concentraciones, en el ambiente. La Universidad Rice ha demostrado un auto de una sola molécula desarrollado mediante un proceso químico y que incluye el uso de buckyballs como ruedas. Es conducido controlando la temperatura ambiente y posicionando la punta de un microscopio de efecto túnel.

Otra definción dice que es un robot que permite interacciones precisas con objetos de tamaño nanométrico, o puede manipular con resolución nanométrica. Tales dispositivos están más relacionados con la microscopía o con microscopio de sonda de barrido, en vez describir a los nanorobots como una máquina molecular. Siguiendo con la definición de microscopía incluso con grandes aparatos como un microscopio de fuerza atómica que pueden ser considerados como instrumentos nanorrobóticos cuando son configurados para realizar nanomanipulaciones. Desde esta perspectiva, robots de macroescala o microrobots que se pueden mover con precisión nanométrica también puede ser considerado como nanorobots.

 Palabra(s) clave: Nanorrobótica

### DARPA’S NEW INITIATIVE AIMS TO MAKE NANOSCALE MACHINES A REALITY

Written By: Arlington Hewes

For much of history, builders and makers fixated on the monumental—pyramids, cathedrals, skyscrapers, aircraft carriers. Increasingly, however, the cutting edge focus is smaller. Much smaller. The field of nanotechnology aims to build components or even entire machines so small they approach the atomic.

Tiny machines may cruise our bodies selectively releasing drugs, repairing cells, or hunting pathogens. Nanotechnology may yield materials with amazing new properties. But first we’ve got to learn how to manipulate matter on the tiniest scales.

Though nanotechnology is advancing, there is not yet a consistent, economical method of assembly. However, a new DARPA program called Atoms to Product (A2P) hopes to change that. The research focus of the initiative is to develop practical miniaturization and assembly methods at scales 100,000 times smaller than today’s most advanced techniques.

In addition to learning to better build nanoscale components and machines, DARPA is interested in making materials that exhibit useful nanoscale properties on human scales. Some of these, they say, include quantized electrical characteristics, glueless adhesion, rapid temperature changes, and tunable light absorption and scattering.

“If successful, A2P could help enable creation of entirely new classes of materials that exhibit nanoscale properties at all scales,” DARPA program manager John Main said in a news release, “It could lead to the ability to miniaturize materials, processes and devices that can’t be miniaturized with current technology, as well as build three-dimensional products and systems at much smaller sizes.”

Main notes that such assembly naturally occurs in plants and animals, each of which is made up of cells and proteins a million or a billion times smaller than the organism itself. He hopes to enable similar assembly for manmade materials and devices.

Though the announcement didn’t specify exactly what approaches will be pursued, a few fascinating methods we’ve covered for making on tiny scales include specially folded DNAand 3D printed structures with nearly nanoscale details. (See video.)

Though Atoms to Product is a new program, it isn’t DARPA’s first foray into nanotechnology. The agency has funded research over the years, including prior study of tip-based nanofabrication using Atomic Force Microscope cantilevers and tips (these are a bit like record player needles with tips a few atoms wide).

Will the agency’s latest nanotechnology efforts yield a breakthrough? Maybe, maybe not. But DARPA is known for early involvement in hugely influential technologies like GPS, the internet, and graphical user interfaces. Recent projects include self-driving cars and advanced robotics (among an array of other emerging technologies).

DARPA’s work is often of the moonshot variety. Not all of it will necessarily have immediate impact. But when it does work, it tends to go big. Advanced nanotech is in that category. More practical approaches to building on the nanoscale could have wide ranging influence from health and medicine to manufacturing and materials science.

[Image Credits: Nanob, Walter Denkins; Microscale gripper holding silicon nanowires,Cristian Mølhave/Wikimedia Commons]

This entry was posted in Singularity and tagged 3d printingdarpadarpa atoms to productdna nanotechnologymicroscale 3d printing,nanotechnology.

 Palabra(s) clave: NANOSCALEMACHINES

Dylan Taylor

### NASA's origami robots can squeeze into places rovers can't

por Mariella Moon | Source: NASA

#### They could be used to explore the parts of Mars a full-sized rover can't reach.

Imagine a Martian rover that can send small robotic minions to crawl into crevices or climb steep slopes -- everywhere a full-sized vehicle can't go to. That's the scenario a team from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory hopes to achieve by developing small origami-inspired robots called Pop-Up Flat Folding Explorer Robots or PUFFERs. They're made of printed circuit boards and can be flattened and stacked on top of each other on the way to their mission. Once they get to the location, they can pop back up and drive away.

PUFFER's project manager Jaakko Karras conjured up its design back when he was experimenting with origami while working on robots at UC Berkeley's Biomimetic Millisystem Lab. The team replaced the paper he used in his design with printed circuit boards and then 3D printed wheels for the machine. PUFFER's latest set of wheels have treads and can inch forward one wheel at a time, so it can climb slopes. They can also fold over the robot's body if it needs to squeeze into a tiny opening.

While the current prototype can already drive up to 2,050 feet on one charge and withstand extremely high temperatures, the team has more plans for the machine. They want to equip it with scientific instruments, which could make it as big as a breadbox. In addition, if it's to explore Mars and other celestial bodies, it has to be autonomous and not a machine controlled remotely via Bluetooth.

Karras said PUFFERs "can do parallel science with a rover, so you can increase the amount you're doing in a day." Kalind Carpenter, who made the robot's wheels, added: "If Curiosity had a stack of PUFFERs on board, each of them could go to separate spots, and the rover would just go to the most interesting one."

#### Tags

 Palabra(s) clave: origamirobots

#### National Geographic Society [66]

La National Geographic Society es una de las organizaciones sobre ciencia y educación más grandes del mundo. Fue fundada en Estados Unidos el 27 de enero de 1888 por 33 hombres interesados en "organizar una sociedad para el incremento y la difusión del conocimiento geográfico". Gardiner Greene Hubbard se convirtió en su primer presidente y su yerno, Alexander Graham Bell, fue su sucesor el 7 de enero de 1898.

 Palabra(s) clave: Historia

### Native vs Hybrid App Development

Aldo Ziflaj

People enjoy using their smartphones because they can accomplish many things on the go such as reading e-mails, social networking, watching movies and plenty of other activities. We enjoy smartphones because they have many applications that make everyday activities easier.

If you are thinking of developing for the mobile application market, an important decision is to decide between developing a native application or a hybrid one.

It’s an age old question that refuses to go away, we thought it was time to revisit… Which is the best?

#### Native over Hybrid

Building native applications means using the native language of the platform, Objective-C on iOS, and Java on Android. The main advantage of native applications is their performance. Native apps are compiled into machine code (Dalvik byte code under Android), which gives the best performance you can get from the mobile phone.

Best performance includes fast and fluid animations as well as full access to phone hardware, multi touch support and the latest APIs.

Native development is far from easy. Despite the great number of resources that can be found, it may not be understandable to everyone. As code must be written specifically for each platform, the same code will have to largely be rewritten with little able to be shared. The logic may be the same, but the language, APIs and the development process is different. This process can be relatively long for complex applications.

#### Going Native

If you are new to mobile development and want to build performance-critical mobile apps and/or take advantage of native APIs, you would need a good resource on learning mobile native development.

Let’s take iOS for example. If you want to be a native iOS developer, firstly get yourself a Mac. You can write code anywhere, but a Mac is needed to build the code into an application as is an iOS Developer Account (\$99 per year).

You can get a great intro to Objective-C by creating your own Flappy Bird game in your browser. A single online tutorial won’t quite do the trick though, Apple provides its own tutorial which is helpful for beginners and experienced developers. This tutorial introduces application design, structure and code implementation while building a ToDoList app (ToDo lists seem to be the ‘Hello, World!’ applications for mobile development).

As for Android development, I would recommend Learning Android, 2nd Edition by O’Reilly. It gives a good insight at of Android development while building a Twitter-like mobile client.

And of course, SitePoint has plenty of iOS and Android development articles for you to enjoy!

#### Hybrid over Native

Hybrid applications are web applications (or web pages) in the native browser, such as UIWebView in iOS andWebView in Android (not Safari or Chrome). Hybrid apps are developed using HTML, CSS and Javascript, and then wrapped in a native application using platforms like Cordova. This allows you to use any web-native framework you want, and there are plenty of these.

The application development is faster, simpler, more rapid and the application is easier to maintain. You can change platforms anytime you need, Cordova lets you build your application for more than one platform just by one adding line of code. As for the phone hardware such as the camera or Bluetooth, Cordova has a large repository of plugins you may use.

The main problem with hybrid apps is that they still depend on the native browser, which means they are not as fast as native apps.

#### Going Hybrid

If you decided to develop hybrid applications, then you should know that there are two main ‘competitors’ in this field. One is Cordova (and Cordova-based tools like PhoneGap) and the other is Appcelerator Titanium. They both target mobile platforms but work in very different ways.

Developing with Cordova is just like developing a webpage. You create HTML, CSS and JavaScript local files, test them in the browser and then wrap them in a native web view with Cordova (you’ll still need native SDKs and development tools for this step).

Using Titanium is a bit different, you don’t any HTML and CSS files, unless you want to create an application that uses both native and HTML-based User Interfaces. Titanium provides a very useful mobile tool set that helps you emulate (or simulate) your application on the real platform, not in the browser. When your app is run on the device, it doesn’t get wrapped into a web view, but gets interpreted by a Javascript engine (JavaScriptCore in iOS orRhino in Android).

Appcelerator provides a good tutorial (surprisingly not a ToDo application).

There are also several other less known hybrid development options such as XamarinRhoCorona and MoSync. All of these work in slightly different ways and may benefit you more depending on your current programming experience.

#### Conclusion

Both native and hybrid are ways to fulfill the different needs and preferences of users and developers, and none of them can be thought as a perfect solution. They have their strengths and weaknesses and it is up to you to decide which of them fits you better and which one you will use in your application.

What are your experiences and thoughts on Hybrid vs Native development?

 Palabra(s) clave: NativeHybridApp Development

### Navigating DevOps: Learn What It Is and Why It Matters To Your Business

by New Relic

#### In this eBook you'll learn; what DevOps is, where it came from, why it was created and who's adopting it...plus a whole lot more.

There are as many opinions about DevOps as there are commentators, but one thing is undeniable: DevOps is real. In a few short years, headlines about DevOps have gone from "What the F--- Is DevOps?" and "DevOps Is a Poorly Executed Scam"  to "The New Normal of DevOps" and "Three Reasons Your Startup Will Suffer Without DevOps."

From tiny startups to giant Fortune 500 enterprises, the IT industry is adopting DevOps at an amazing rate. And yet, the majority of IT professionals either don't know anything about DevOps or just have a general understanding of the big picture. If you fall into either of those categories, this discussion is meant for you. In the following pages, we answer a number of basic questions—questions that probably sound much like your own:

• What is DevOps?
• Where did it come from?
• What problems led to DevOps?
• How does DevOps "work?"
• How widely used is DevOps today?
• Why are people adopting DevOps?
• What are the benefits?

 Palabra(s) clave: DevOps