Referencias | References

Referencias completas de vocabulario, eventos, crónicas, evidencias y otros contenidos utilizados en los proyectos relacionados con biotecnología y neurociencia de la KW Foundation.

Full references of vocabulary, events, chronicles, evidences and other contents used in KW Projects related to biotechnology and neuroscience.

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Taking down the internet: possible but how probable? [1707]

de System Administrator - lunes, 17 de octubre de 2016, 23:21

Credit: Thinkstock

Taking down the internet: possible but how probable?

By Taylor Armerding

Unknown players – probably a nation state – are probing the defenses of the core infrastructure of the internet. How worried should we be?

The hack of the Democratic National Committee this past summer, allegedly by Russia, prompted a political firestorm, but didn’t cause even a ripple in the US economy.

But imagine the economic firestorm that would result if online attackers brought the entire internet down, even temporarily.

You may not have to imagine it, according to Bruce Schneier, CTO of Resilient Systems, cryptography guru, blogger and international authority on internet security. In a recent post titled, "Someone is Learning How to Take Down the Internet,"he wrote that he had been told by multiple sources that, ““someone has been probing the defenses of … some of the major companies that provide the basic infrastructure that makes the Internet work.”

But according to some of his fellow security experts, you don’t really need to imagine it, since the chances of the internet really being taken down are remote. And even if it happens, it won’t cause catastrophic damage. Several commenters on Schneier’s post wondered why even hostile actors would want to take down the internet, since if they do, they won’t be able to use it either.

Whatever the reality, it has prompted some energetic discussion.

Schneier said the probing has been done mainly with calibrated Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks, which overwhelm a site with so much data that it cannot respond to legitimate traffic.

DDoS attacks are nothing new – activist and criminal hackers use them all the time. What distinguishes these is their profile.

Schneier said he had spoken with leaders of several companies – who all demanded anonymity – that operate elements of the “backbone” of the internet, and they had all told him similar stories.

"It feels like China. You can hide the origin of a lot of attacks, but it is harder to hide the origins of a DDoS. And this doesn’t seem like their (the NSA’s) style”


Bruce Schneider, CTO of Resilient Systems

“These attacks are significantly larger than the ones they're used to seeing,” he wrote. “They last longer. They're more sophisticated. And they look like probing.”

That, he said both in his post and a later interview with CSO, is because of their “style” – over time, the volume of the attack increases, to the point of the defense system’s failure. They also employ multiple attack vectors, “so they force the companies to use all their defenses at once.”

He suggested it was the digital version of what the US did during the Cold War, when the US would fly high-altitude planes over the Soviet Union to force them to turn their air defense systems on, which would then let the US map their capabilities.

“We didn’t do it because we’re evil,” he said. “We just wanted to know – just in case.”

He said these attacks look like they’re coming from a nation-state – probably China. While some responses to his post have said it may be the US National Security Agency (NSA) doing a sort of “stress test” on the internet, Schneier doubts that. “It feels like China,” he said. “You can hide the origin of a lot of attacks, but it is harder to hide the origins of a DDoS. And this doesn’t seem like their (the NSA’s) style.”

Dan Kaminsky, security researcher and chief scientist at White Ops, agreed. “I don't think the NSA is doing it, because it'd very much surprise me if they needed to,” he said.

Schneier also pointed to a recent quarterly report from Verisign, the registrar for many popular top-level Internet domains, like .com and .net., which reported a 75 percent increase in attacks, year over year, with an average peak attack size of 17.37Gbps (Gigabits per second), an increase of 214 percent.

That pales in comparison with the recent record 620GbpsDDoS attack against the website of security blogger Brian Krebs, and Schneier said the Verisign report doesn’t have the level of detail he got from the anonymous industry leaders he spoke with, but he said, “the trends are the same.”

He added that since his blog post, he has heard from three other companies that support the Internet’s “backbone,” and they have also told him they are seeing same thing.

So how worried should the US be? Is this just some cyber Cold War maneuvering, or a potentially catastrophic threat?

Most experts say they think it needs attention, but see it more as maneuvering than an imminent increase in danger to the integrity of the internet.

Sam Curry, chief product officer at Cybereason, said based on his observations, “risk levels haven't changed. It's an interesting hypothesis that needs more data points, but watch out for confirmation bias going forward.”

"Risk levels haven't changed"


Sam Curry, chief product officer, Cybereason

There is little disagreement, however, that a massive DDoS attack could disable portions, or even all, of the internet for some period of time.

Kaminsky called Schneier a "highly credible source," and said he believes some hackers actually can take down the internet, in part because, "the damage from cyberattacks keeps growing and the risk perceived by attackers keeps shrinking."

This, he said, applies especially to nation-states, which have figured out that, "while their militaries might be trivially overrun, their hackers aren't.

"Cyberwar has become like real war, except you can wage it, and possibly win it, in the sense that you can extract political concessions not to fight it at all," he said. "And the capital investment is tiny – no tanks, no fuel, just talent, time, food, and access."

It has also become easier to launch much larger DDoS attacks because so many internet of things (IoT) devices can be so easily compromised and used as part of a botnet. Krebs, in a post on the DDoS attack that took down his site, noted that they are, "protected with weak or hard-coded passwords. Most of these devices are available for sale on retail store shelves for less than $100, or – in the case of routers – are shipped by ISPs to their customers."

Paul Vixie, CEO of Farsight Security and previously president, chairman and founder of Internet Systems Consortium (ISC), agrees that the internet is vulnerable, but always has been. "The threat is old and well known," he said. "The internet was built in a lab for eggheads who all trusted each other, and so it has no defense against its own users."

But he said he thinks Schneier needed to be much more precise about what he meant about taking down the internet. "Down for who, and for how long?" he asked. "There's no way to break the internet permanently, since the same activities that gave rise to it and which reinvent it every day will eventually recreate a new infrastructure that works mostly the same way the old one did."

"The Internet was ... set up so the network could remain alive, even if parts of it get blown up. Even if the 'great server in the sky' got taken down, it would be replaced instantly."


Gary McGraw, CTO, Cigital

Gary McGraw, CTO of Cigital, sees it much the same way. "The internet was designed to survive a nuclear war," he said. "It was set up so the network could remain alive, even if parts of it get blown up. Even if the 'great server in the sky' got taken down, it would be replaced instantly."

Schneier said he agrees with much of that. "I'm not convinced it will go down," he said, "and if it does, it will be temporary. A DDoS attack needs the internet to work. It eventually eats its own tail." 

But even a temporary takedown could cause great damage, Vixie said. "In a thought experiment, a bunch of us got together and brainstormed ways to make the internet unavailable to the G-20 for 72 hours. 

"This was because an attack of that kind, had it been pulled off on Sept. 10, 11, and 12 of 2001, would have vastly amplified the terror and confusion of the terrorist attacks on 9/11," he said. 

McGraw agrees that the potential for damage is very real. "If you have a critical system, you need to pay attention," he said. "I'd hate to be having remote surgery when the internet goes down and there's a scalpel sticking out of my chest. "

But he said horror stories like planes falling out of the sky, "aren't going to happen. That's ridiculous."

Some comments on Schneier's blog have suggested that the DDoS attack isn't the real attack – that it is meant to be the digital version of "covering fire," so the hackers can get something like an advanced persistent threat (APT) into a system without detection.

"I thought of that," Schneier said, "but I didn't write about it because it would be too speculative."

What to do about it draws even more of a mixed response. Schneier has said he doesn't know what should be done, but did call for a "national strategy" on DDoS attacks, "because a lot of this is critical infrastructure. The question is what do we do when critical infrastructure is in private hands. We don't have a good way of dealing with it."

Kaminsky said he thinks the US needs, "an NIH (National Institute of Health) for cyber." He also called for more resources. "More nerds, more resources, more structure, absolute bureaucratic firewall against the offense guys," he said.

Israel Barak, CISO at Cybereason, said it will take more of what Congress and the Obama administration have called for with the Cyber Information Sharing Act (CISA), but which still is not a reality.

Rapid detection and response, "requires tight cooperation, integration and information sharing between a large number of Internet Service Providers, CERT organizations, law enforcement, and government agencies," he said, "backed up by supporting government regulation related to the permitted scope of lawful interception and privacy regulations. We're very far from this today."


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Talent Management Strategy for Buying Software [734]

de System Administrator - martes, 12 de agosto de 2014, 21:08

A talent management strategy is needed for buying software

by Emma Snider

In one of IT's most-saturated markets, organizations need guidance before buying. Here are five tips to help make shopping more fun.

Talent management is one of the most crowded technology markets in IT. According to Katherine Jones, a Bersin by Deloitte analyst forhuman capital managementtechnology, just 1% of market share can represent a substantial user base for vendors. Follow these tips from her and others on choosing and then using software that's right for you -- and you'll have a winning talent management strategy.

  • Mind the integration gap. If you plan to buy multiple talent management modules from a single vendor, make sure to ask about the integration between them. Many talent management platforms were created through acquisition, and vendors don't always do adequate behind-the-scenes work to make acquired modules integrate seamlessly with ones developed in-house.
  • Determine your No. 1 priority. Talent management systems tend to be strong in some modules and weak in others. Before you buy, discuss which one is most important to your company, and look for a vendor with a strong offering in that area.
  • Use automation as a springboard for change. If your company is moving to talent management software from paper-based regimens, take the opportunity to re-evaluate your talent management strategy and processes. Don't re-create redundant or confusing processes.
  • Make your vendor shortlist longer. There are lots of solid talent management software options; a 2013 IDC industry report named seven market leaders. Investigating vendors big and small won't just ensure that you get the software that best meets your needs -- you might just score a deal if you play your cards right.
  • Practice good change managementSince talent management software is often rolled out to an organization's entire workforce, getting employees to use the system is critical. Ensure that all employees know about the new technology and have proper training.


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Talón de Aquiles [431]

de System Administrator - viernes, 17 de enero de 2014, 16:55


El talón de Aquiles es una expresión que se emplea para referirse al punto flaco o débil de una persona o cosa: «la avaricia es el talón de Aquiles de Fernando».

Tiene su antiguo origen en el poema incompleto Aquileida (Achilleis), escrito por Estacio en el siglo I, que contiene una versión del mito del nacimiento de Aquiles que no aparece en otras fuentes: cuando Aquiles nació Tetis intentó hacerlo inmortal sumergiéndolo en el río Estigia. Sin embargo, su madre lo sostuvo por el talón derecho para sumergirlo en la corriente, por lo que ese preciso punto de su cuerpo quedó vulnerable, siendo la única zona en la que Aquiles podía ser herido en batalla. No está claro si esta versión del mito se conocía anteriormente.

En otra versión de la historia, Tetis ungía al niño con ambrosía y lo ponía al fuego del hogar para quemar las partes mortales de su cuerpo. Fue interrumpida en estos quehaceres porPeleo, que arrancó con violencia al niño de sus manos y éste quedó con un talón carbonizado. Tetis, enfurecida, abandonó a ambos. Peleo sustituyó el talón quemado de Aquiles por la taba del gigante Dámiso, célebre por su velocidad en la carrera. De ahí que se nombrara a Aquiles como «el de los pies ligeros» (podas ôkus).

En cualquier caso, durante el asedio de Troya, batalla final de la guerra librada entre griegos y troyanosParis mató a Aquiles clavándole una flecha envenenada en el talón.

Sin embargo, ninguna de las fuentes anteriores a Estacio hace referencia a esta invulnerabilidad. Al contrario, en la Ilíada Homero menciona que Aquiles es herido: en el Libro XXI el héroepeonio Asteropeo, hijo de Pelegón, desafía a Aquiles junto al río Escamandro. Le arrojó dos lanzas a la vez, alcanzando una el hombro de Aquiles, «del cual brotó negra sangre». Hay que dejar claro, que la epopeya de la Ilíada no se llega a relatar la muerte de Aquiles.

Tampoco en los poemas fragmentarios del ciclo troyano en los que aparece una descripción de la muerte del héroe —Cipria (autor desconocido), Etiópida de Arctino de MiletoPequeña Ilíada de Lesques e Iliupersis de Arctino— hay rastro de referencias a su invulnerabilidad o su famoso talón. En vasijas pintadas posteriores representando la muerte de Aquiles, una flecha (o en muchos casos varias) alcanza su cuerpo.

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Tango [35]

de System Administrator - martes, 21 de enero de 2014, 21:49


El tango es un género musical tradicional de Argentina y Uruguay, nacido de la fusión cultural entre inmigrantes europeos (españoles e italianos, principalmente), descendientes de esclavos africanos y nativos de la región del Río de la Plata. Musicalmente suele tener forma binaria (tema y estribillo) o ternaria (dos partes a las que se agrega un trío). De naturaleza netamente urbana y raíz suburbana (“arrabalero”), responde al proceso histórico concreto del mestizaje biológico y cultural de la población rioplatense, a partir de las últimas décadas del siglo XIX. Su interpretación puede llevarse a cabo mediante una amplia variedad de formaciones instrumentales, siendo las más características: el cuarteto de guitarras, el dúo de guitarra y bandoneón, el trío de bandoneón, piano y contrabajo, así como la orquesta típica o el sexteto.


Enrique Santos Discépolo, uno de sus máximos poetas, definió al tango como “un pensamiento triste que se baila”. En 2009 fue presentado por los presidentes de Argentina y Uruguay para ser incluido, y finalmente aprobado, en la Lista del Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial (PCI) de la Humanidad por la UNESCO.


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Tatucera [205]

de System Administrator - miércoles, 8 de enero de 2014, 22:36


El 21 de diciembre de 1971, Ramón Pascasio Báez Mena fue asesinado por la guerrilla del Movimiento de Liberación Nacional-Tupamaros (al que pertenecía Don José Mujica). Su muerte tuvo una gran repercusión en el país. Pascasio Báez era un hombre humilde nacido en 1925, que vivía en la ciudad de Pan de Azúcar, en el departamento de Maldonado. Tenía esposa e hijos y trabajaba como peón rural. Hacia octubre de 1971, Báez transitaba a pie por el campo, intentando detener a un animal que había escapado en la estancia Espartacus, situada en la Ruta 9 a unos 10 km de la ciudad de Pan de Azúcar. Casualmente descubrió una guarida de los guerrilleros, llamada “tatucera”. Era centro de adiestramiento, escondite y arsenal con armas robadas. También se estaba preparando un sector a modo de laboratorio. Se considera que era parte de un plan para llevar la guerrilla al medio rural.


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de System Administrator - miércoles, 6 de agosto de 2014, 23:12


By: Jason Dorrier

Humans learn by imitation. There’s no predicting what your kid will bring home from school or the park. What if machines could learn like kids? In fact, they can and do. Robots don’t go to the park or school (yet)—but they live in labs and can go online.

University of Washington researchers recently augmented typical in-person imitation learning (where a human shows a robot how to solve a problem) with online crowdsourcing to teach their robots how to build shapes with blocks.

In a paper describing their work, the group says in-person imitation learning together with crowdsourced learning realized better results than in-person imitation alone.

After the robot was taught by 14 volunteers in the lab, the scientists posted questions toAmazon Mechanical Turk. Mechanical Turk distributes simple tasks to thousands of online workers for a small fee per completed task.

The researchers asked users, “How would you make a shape (turtle, person, car, etc.) using these colored blocks?” Their software analyzed hundreds of responses and sorted the best designs by asking participants to rate designs submitted by other users. The program chose the most highly rated responses and built them using physical blocks.


Crowdsourced turtles (above) and imitation images built in blocks by a Gambit robot (below).

Crowdsourcing learning for robots could be a powerful technique. The current process involves fewer teachers and can be expensive. But for now, crowdsourcing is likely best combined with other methods and at least some human supervision.

For example, at first, crowdsourced learning seems useful for projects like Google’s self-driving cars. Currently, Google engineers log miles on the road and laboriously catalogue and write code for as many situations as they can. They’re able to anticipate a variety of events, but can’t possibly account for everything.

What if Google’s cars learned to solve rare, low-probability events from the crowd? As it turns out, what works for a robot playing with blocks might be impractical for a multi-ton machine trying to safely navigate city streets. Quality control is crucial.

The authors note in their paper, “Although we demonstrated the benefits of utilizing crowdsourcing, the context of robotic imitation learning, crowdsourcing needs to be used with caution. The quality control of crowdsourcing was non-trivial.”

That said, crowdsourced machine learning could help a robot better sort boxes in a warehouse. And maybe Google’s self-driving cars could use even more closely supervised crowdsourcing. The system queries the crowd, selects what it thinks are the best solutions, and engineers give the final thumbs up.

As robots become commonplace, however, we imagine they might cut humans out of the learning equation entirely—that is, as robots interact with us day to day, they analyze what works and what doesn’t, adjust their programming, and share it with each other. Robots would get more capable the more they interact with the world.

Image Credit: “Accelerating Imitation Learning through Crowdsourcing”/University of Washington

This entry was posted in AIRobots and taggedAmazon Mechanical Turkgoogle searchgoogle self-driving carmachine learningPR2 Robot,University of Washington.


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TCP/IP [73]

de System Administrator - sábado, 4 de enero de 2014, 21:03

La familia TCP/IP es un conjunto de protocolos de red en los que se basa Internet y que permiten la transmisión de datos entre dispositivos. Los más importantes son: Protocolo de Control de Transmisión (TCP) y Protocolo de Internet (IP). Fueron los primeros en definirse y son los más utilizados de la familia. En la familia TCP/IP existen más 100 protocolos diferentes. Entre ellos se encuentra el popular HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol), que es el que se utiliza para acceder a las páginas web. El ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) se utiliza para la resolución de direcciones, el FTP (File Transfer Protocol) para transferencia de archivos y el SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), junto al el POP (Post Office Protocol), para correo electrónico.


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Technology Gives Us the Power to Rewrite Nature [1096]

de System Administrator - domingo, 15 de febrero de 2015, 23:46

Technology Gives Us the Power to Rewrite Nature


One of my old professors used to say calculus is the language of the universe. Now, every so often, I'll watch trees in the wind, cars on the road, or clouds rolling by, and see equations made manifest.

Though the world appears incomprehensibly huge and endlessly varying, all that mind-boggling complexity emerges from a shared set of instructions. Instructions that, until relatively recently, we couldn't see, let alone understand.

But of course, this is no longer the case. Each year we learn more about the laws governing how particles interact to form atoms, stars, and galaxies; the chemical axioms behind reactions and materials; and the molecular code directing the assembly and evolution of every living thing on the planet.

In a recent video, Jason Silva likens this to the moment Neo wakes up and sees the matrix for the first time, sees those scrolling lines of green code serving up the world of the senses.

Better understanding the world we live in is alone a worthwhile endeavor. But it’s also remarkably empowering.

As science reveals this universal instruction set, we get to play with it too. Today, we're still beginners. But with time and practice, we'll become more like master composers scoring a symphony.

“The real secret of magic is that the world is made of words,” Terence McKenna once said. “And that if you know the words that the world is made of you can make of it whatever you wish.” Today’s scientific discoveries seed tomorrow’s technologies. And those technologies may bend the very fabric of reality as we know it.


Atlas detector at the Large Hadron Collider.

The proof of our growing linguistic proficiency isn't hard to find.

Robots are exploring Mars, orbiting a comet, and approaching Pluto. A mammoth particle smasher is probing nature’s fundamental bits and pieces in Switzerland. Machines are transcribing tens of thousands (and soon millions) of human genomes. A deluge of scientific study is issuing from universities and research groups all around the world.

But, you might ask, to what end?

A wise saying goes, “With great power comes great responsibility.” As science gives us the ability to understand and ultimately rewrite nature with technology, what story will emerge?

Many love speculating on that question. Some see apocalypse, others utopia. The truth is, no one knows for sure.

But we can expect the unexpected. Scientific and technological progress is humanity’s greatest collective project—an epic work as heroic, flawed, and surprising as its countless authors.

Image Credit: Shutterstock.comCERN

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Tecnología Stealth [311]

de System Administrator - sábado, 18 de enero de 2014, 20:26


Las tecnologías furtivas (stealth del inglés), llamadas popularmente de invisibilidad, cubren varias técnicas de ocultación, la mayoría usadas en aviones y barcos, para hacerles menos visibles al radar.

Esta tecnología se hizo notoria en guerras como la del Golfo en 1991, aunque dados los recientes avances en los algoritmos de filtros bayesianos, usados para procesar los datos recibidos por los radares, así como las mejoras en los propios radares y sensores, ha perdido efectividad. No obstante, tanto Estados Unidos como Rusia y otros países continúan desarrollando e investigando tecnologías furtivas.

La tendencia actual es integrar tecnologías furtivas sobre equipo más convencional, bajo el concepto denominado baja observabilidad.

Las tecnologías de invisibilidad no son nuevas. Los comandos de infantería de operaciones especiales siempre la han usado, incluso los aviones haciendo uso de su maniobrabilidad, siguiendo el perfil del terreno o usando contramedidas electrónicas. Pero las tecnologías de invisibilidad se refieren más al diseño y composición del vehículo para reducir drásticamente el eco radar que reflejan.

Una misión llevada a cabo por un vehículo que usa tecnologías de invisibilidad les será descubierta (por ejemplo) cuando el objetivo sea destruido. Atacar utilizando el factor sorpresa, hacerlo a gran velocidad y maximizar el uso de tecnologías de invisibilidad maximiza la efectividad del ataque, lo que hace que el enemigo tenga menos probabilidades de defenderse en ese y futuros ataques. Por el contrario, las concesiones de diseño que implica hacer un arma totalmente furtiva hacen que, en caso de ser detectada, no tenga apenas probabilidad de escapatoria.


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Tecnología V2V: comunicación entre vehículos para prevenir accidentes [929]

de System Administrator - sábado, 11 de octubre de 2014, 14:05

Tecnología V2V: comunicación entre vehículos para prevenir accidentes

por Camila Alicia Ortega Hermida

En Estados Unidos se está desarrollando un sistema de comunicación entre vehículos que permitirá prevenir accidentes y proporcionar a los conductores mayor seguridad vial.

El Departamento de Transporte de los Estados Unidos  anunció el pasado 3 de febrero su decisión de avanzar en la implementación de la tecnología V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle), un sistema que permitirá a los carros comunicarse entre sí, de modo que puedan evitarse accidentes a través del intercambio de información segura que pueda ser usada por el conductor para realizar acciones que eviten un choque, como frenar en seco, girar el timón o reducir la velocidad.

La decisión busca aumentar los esfuerzos preventivos, pues las autoridades encargadas de la seguridad vial en diferentes países se han enfocado principalmente en políticas que reduzcan el daño causado por posibles impactos y no tanto en la prevención de los mismos.

Lea también: ‘Smart Parking’, una solución para agilizar la búsqueda de estacionamientos


Tecnología V2V. Imagen:

La tecnología V2V contaría con sensores de velocidad y sistemas de geolocalización, que permitirán crear un sistema de comunicación entre un vehículo y otro, de modo que los conductores puedan recibir alertas cada vez que otro carro se encuentre en un perimetro cercano y que debido a la alta o baja velocidad en la que transite, puedan representar un riesgo.

En el 2012, el Departamento de Transporte de EE.UU. realizó una prueba piloto de la tecnología V2V en alrededor de 3.000 vehículos de diferentes marcas para garantizar que el sistema funcione de manera integrada, sin importar el fabricante.


Si bien el objetivo principal del proyecto es prevenir los accidentes de tránsito y salvar millones de vidas, el sistema V2V representa también una oportunidad para mejorar la movilidad en las ciudades, pues su eventual implementación permitiría saber con exactitud la densidad del tráfico y el número aproximado de vehículos que transiten por una malla vial. Además, la implementación de un sistema como el V2V puede representar una oportunidad única ticipada para optimizar el flujo de los carros auto-tripulados, una industria naciente y creciente que más temprano que tarde comenzará a extenderse en las ciudades. Claro, como en todo, su implementación dependerá en gran parte de una transformación ingente en infraestructura, que en el caso de muchas ciudades latinoamericanas parece lejana desafortunadamente, pero que a través de la difusión de iniciativas como ésta quizás podamos promover.   

Imágenes: Tráfico Ciudad de Shutterstock / Autopista Noche de Shutterstock



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